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Year : 2004  |  Volume : 41  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 170-174

Brainstem gliomas – A clinicopathological study of 45 cases with p53 immunohistochemistry

Department of Pathology, Seth G. S. Medical College and KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, India

Correspondence Address:
Prerna B Badhe
Department of Pathology, Seth G. S. Medical College and KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

PMID: 15659871

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BACKGROUND : Brainstem tumors represent 10% of central nervous system tumors, accounting for 30% of pediatric posterior fossa tumors. AIMS : The aim of this study was to clinicopathologically correlate 45 cases of brain stem gliomas and determine the occurrence and prognostic significance of p53 expression. MATERIALS AND METHOD : 45 cases of brain stem gliomas encountered during a 19-year period. 30 were diagnosed by surgical biopsy and 15 at autopsy. In 25 cases p53 immunohistochemistry (Avidin Biotinylated technique) was performed. The WHO brain tumor classification and Stroink’s CT classification were applied. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED : Chi square test. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS : 51 % of gliomas were observed in the first decade of life. The female to male ratio was 1.04: 1. The commonest presenting features were cranial nerve palsies (33%) and cerebellar signs (29.8%). 55.55% of cases were located in the pons, 31.01% in the medulla and 13.33% in the midbrain. Diffuse astrocytomas were seen in 40 cases (5% were Grade I, 47.5%Grade II, 32.5% Grade III and 15% Grade IV) and pilocytic astrocytomas in 5 cases. Grade IV patients had 2- 3 mitoses /10 high power fields and had a poorer survival rate.Grade II astrocytomas were treated with excision and radiotherapy, while grade III and IV tumors were treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy (CCNU). Improvement was noted in 20% of patients postoperatively. The outcome was better in patients who were treated surgically. p53 is a frequently mutated gene in brain stem astrocytomas. It was found in 50 % of glioblastoma multiforme, 28.57% of grade III astrocytoma and 12.5% of grade II astrocytoma, while grade 1 astrocytomas failed to express p53 protein. p53 positivity was more in high grade lesions, decreasing significantly in lower grade lesions.

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