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Year : 2005  |  Volume : 42  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 30-34

Feasibility of breast conservation surgery in locally advanced breast cancer downstaged by neoadjuvant chemotherapy: A study in mastectomy specimens using simulation lumpectomy

Departments of Surgery and Pathology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Pondicherry, India

Correspondence Address:
Jaiganesh LK Viswambharan
Departments of Surgery and Pathology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Pondicherry
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0019-509X.15097

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BACKGROUND : The response of locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) offers these patients previously treated by mastectomy, the chance for breast conservation. AIM : This study aims to assess the feasibility of lumpectomy in patients with LABC treated by NACT, with residual tumor 5 cm. SETTINGS, DESIGN : Single group prospective study from August 2001 to June 2003 in a teaching hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Thirty patients with LABC whose tumors reduced with NACT to 5 cm were included. Simulation lumpectomy was performed on the mastectomy specimens to achieve 1 to 2 cm clearance from tumor and hence margin negativity. Multiple sections of the inked margin were studied. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : Margin positivity was correlated with patient factors. Chi square test and Fisher's exact test used as appropriate. P value 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS : After three cycles of NACT, 4 patients (13%) had complete clinical response including 2 with complete pathological response. Twenty-two (73%) showed partial response and 4, no response. Fourteen out of thirty (47%) had tumor involvement of margins. Tumors with post-chemotherapy size >4 cm were margin positive in 10/13 (77%). Tumors with post-chemotherapy size>3 cm were margin positive in 13/24 (54%). Tumors with post-chemotherapy size 3 cm were margin negative in 5/6 (83%). Pre-chemotherapy tumor size and post-chemotherapy tumor size were significantly associated with margin positivity (P=0.003). Tumors in the subareolar location had significantly higher incidence of residual tumor in the nipple areola complex. (P=0.04). Margin positivity of lumpectomy on downstaged tumors can be reduced by removing the nipple areola complex in subareolar tumors and by limiting breast conservation to tumors with post-chemotherapy size 3 cm.

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