Indian Journal of Cancer
Home  ICS  Feedback Subscribe Top cited articles Login 
Users Online :1969
Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
Navigate here
Resource links
 »  Similar in PUBMED
 »  Search Pubmed for
 »  Search in Google Scholar for
 »Related articles
 »  Article in PDF (1,873 KB)
 »  Citation Manager
 »  Access Statistics
 »  Reader Comments
 »  Email Alert *
 »  Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
 »  Abstract
 » Introduction
 »  Materials and Me...
 » Results
 » Discussion
 » Conclusion
 »  References
 »  Article Figures
 »  Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded503    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 9    

Recommend this journal


  Table of Contents  
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 52  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 87-92

Stromal myofibroblasts in oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant disorders

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Web Publication3-Feb-2016

Correspondence Address:
G Jayaraj
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0019-509X.175580

Rights and Permissions

 » Abstract 

Introduction: Concurrent with the progression of a non- diseased epithelium to the pre-cancerous epithelium to carcinoma, the stroma also undergoes modifications. Myofibroblasts are important stromal cells that play a crucial role in carcinogenesis. The current study investigated the presence of myofibroblasts in healthy oral mucosa, potentially malignant disorders (PMDs) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Materials And Methods: The study material consisted of a total of 106 samples categorized into three groups, namely, Group I - Oral SCC (OSCC) (n = 42), Group II – PMDs (n = 32) and Group III – Oral healthy mucosa (n = 32) subjected to immunohistochemical analysis using alpha Smooth Muscle Actin. Results: Among the 42 cases of OSCC, the staining index was negative in 23 cases (54.7%), low in 9 cases(21.4%) and moderate in 10 cases (23.8%). The stroma of cases of verrucous carcinoma, cases of Hyperkeratosis with epithelial dysplasia, 77.5% of the cases of oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) and healthy oral mucosa were devoid of myofibroblasts resulting in a grade of “0” in all cases.Two of the cases of OSMF (12.5%) showed low staining index for myofibroblast. There was a significant difference in the myofibroblasts expression between the Groups (Kruskal-Wallis test P<0.001). Conclusion: The findings of the current study justify “myofibroblast” as one among the key stromal element in tumor progression. Future studies involving a larger sample size along with follow up of patients with PMDs are essential to identify the exact stage in which they emerge in the stroma of these lesions.

Keywords: Leukoplakia, myofibroblasts, oral cancer, oral submucous fibrosis

How to cite this article:
Jayaraj G, Sherlin H J, Ramani P, Premkumar P, Natesan A. Stromal myofibroblasts in oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant disorders. Indian J Cancer 2015;52:87-92

How to cite this URL:
Jayaraj G, Sherlin H J, Ramani P, Premkumar P, Natesan A. Stromal myofibroblasts in oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant disorders. Indian J Cancer [serial online] 2015 [cited 2022 May 17];52:87-92. Available from:

 » Introduction Top

Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is a major health problem world-wide, especially in the developing countries. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common oral cancer in India with an incidence rate as high as 30- 40%[1] and is associated with a high mortality rate. Among the diseases classified under potentially malignant disorders (PMDs),[2] the prevalence of Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) is high in the Indian Subcontinent due to the habit of arecanut chewing. In India, about 5 million people are affected by this disease.[3]

Interactions between epithelial cells and the connective tissue play a major role in many biological processes. From development to maintenance of normal homeostasis, there is a constant reciprocal interaction between these two tissues. This continues even in pathological states where in the two tissues complement each other contributing to the spread of the pathologies. Though the nomenclature “carcinoma” denotes genetic and epigenetic changes of the epithelial cells, they cannot spread or progress without the supportive role of connective tissue. Therefore, the tumor stroma or activated stroma has drawn much attention, with studies focusing and identifying possible stromal therapeutic targets. There are many stromal cells namely fibroblasts, macrophages, inflammatory cells, which favor the spread of carcinomas with myofibroblasts being a prominent cell type.[4] Transdifferentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts is considered an important event that occurs in the stroma of many invasive carcinomas.[5],[6]

Although it has been hypothesized that the presence of myofibrolasts in the stroma is entirely dependent on the OSCC development,[7] Cintorino et al.[8] have identified myofibroblasts being associated with different grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

Very few studies have independently evaluated the presence of myofibroblasts in normal oral mucosa, Leukoplakia with mild, moderate and severe dysplasia and OSMF (two of the most prevalent PMDs in the Indian Subcontinent), verrucous carcinoma and different histological grades of SCC. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the presence of myofibroblasts in PMDs and SCC, that might help in better understanding of the role played by these cells in the oncogenic process from its evolution stage.

 » Materials and Methods Top

Sample selection

The study material consisted of a total of 106 samples categorized into three groups, namely, Group I-OSCC (n = 42), Group II – PMDs (n = 32) and Group III – histopathologically normal oral mucosa (n = 32). Formalin fixed paraffin embedded blocks of all the cases were retrieved from the archives of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, between the years 2008-2012. The diagnosis was confirmed based on histopathological examination of Hematoxylin and Eosin stained sections. Epithelial Dysplasia was graded into three groups (mild, moderate and severe epithelial dysplasia) based on the classification proposed by Neville et al.[9] The diagnosis and grading of OSCC was based on the World Health Organization 2005 Classification of head and Neck Tumors.[10] OSMF cases were histopathologically graded into early, moderately advanced and advanced according to Pindborg and Sirasat.[11] The study was approved by the institutional review board.

Group I consisted of 42 cases of SCC with the following subgroups: Well-differentiated SCC (WDSCC) (n = 13), moderately differentiated SCC (MDSCC) (n = 10), poorly differentiated SCC (PDSCC) (n = 09) and a variant of SCC-verrucous carcinoma [12] (n = 10).

Group II consisted of 32 cases of PMDs of which 16 were Hyperkeratosis (clinically, leukoplakia) with mild, moderate and severe dysplasia (5 mild, 5 moderate and 6 severe) and 16 cases of OSMF (3 early, 5 moderately advanced and 8 advanced. The moderately advanced and advanced grades of OSMF also had epithelial dysplasia). Group III consisted of 32 histologically normal oral mucosal specimens.

Immunostaining procedure

For immunohistochemical study, 3 µm sections were cut from formalin fixed paraffin embedded blocks, mounted on gelatin coated slides. The sections were deparaffinized in xylene, dehydrated in alcohol and rinse in distilled water. Antigen retrieval was performed using heat induced - epitope retrieval in citrate buffer (pH 6.0) for 10 min in a pressure cooker. Following which endogenous peroxidase was blocked for 5 min, protein block for 5 min. Sections were then incubated with Mouse Monoclonal Alpha Smooth Muscle Actin-SMA-R-7-CE (Leica Microsystems, New Castle, UK) and incubated for 60 min.

Detection was performed using Novolink Min Polymer Detection System (Leica Microsystems, Newcastle, UK). The sections were then counterstained with Mayer's hematoxylin. The slides were then dehydrated and mounted. Negative and positive controls were used in each run. Leiomyosarcoma sections were used as a positive control for alpha SMA and the blood vessels in the sections acted as internal control. Negative controls were achieved by performing the staining procedures with the omission of the primary antibody.

Evaluation of slides

Presence of brown colored end product at the site of target antigen was indicative of positive reactivity. Stromal spindle cells that were positive for aSMA were regarded as myofibroblasts. Immunostaining was assessed by the evaluation of the staining intensity and percentage of aSMA-positive cells, according to the method used by Etemad-Moghadam et al.[13] The percentage of immunopositive cells in the non-inflammatory and non-endothelial stromal cells immediately adjacent to the carcinomatous islands, OSMF, dysplastic and normal epithelium was recorded as: 0% = no positive cells, 1% =1–25% cells, 2% =25–50% cells and 3% =50–100% positive cells. Staining intensity was considered 0%, when there was no staining; 1%, in parts where positivity was observed only at a magnification of x400; 2%, in cases where the staining was obvious at x100, but not at x40; and 3%, in fields where immunopositive cells were seen even at x40. Multiplication of the percentage and intensity scores comprised the “staining index” of each specimen. This index was classified as zero (0), low (1, 2), moderate (3, 4) and high (6-9). The immunohistochemical stained sections were analyzed by two independent observers. Any disagreements were resolved using a pentahead microscope.

Statistical analysis

All the parameters were tabulated and assessed for statistical significance using the SPSS software (Version 16.0). The differences in the presence of myofibroblasts between groups were statistically analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test. The Bonferoni approach was used to adjust the P value in multiple comparisons. P < 0.017 was considered to be statistically significant.

 » Results Top

A total of 106 cases, comprising of 42 cases of OSCC, 32 cases of PMDs, 32 sections of histologically normal oral mucosa were evaluated immunohistochemically for the presence of myofibroblasts. Among the 42 cases of OSCC, the staining index was negative in 23 cases (54.7%), low in 9 cases (21.4%) and moderate in 10 cases (23.8%) [Figure 1]. The staining index of myofibroblasts according to the different histological grades of OSCC is summarized in [Table 1].
Figure 1: Photomicrograph of a representative section of moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The stroma shows myofibroblasts between the malignant epithelial cells, x10

Click here to view
Table 1: Immunohistochemical staining index for α-smooth muscle actin in different grades of OSCC and verrucous carcinoma

Click here to view

As far as the distribution of myofibroblasts was concerned they were predominantly around the tumor islands and in areas of desmoplasia. Tumors lacking a fibrous stroma showed minimal or complete absence of myofibroblasts. The stroma of cases of verrucous carcinoma did not show the presence of myofibroblasts [Figure 2]. Moreover, the presence of myofibroblasts was not significantly different between the subgroups of OSCC (Kruskal-Wallis test P < 0.107).
Figure 2: Photomicrograph of a representative section of verrucous carcinoma. The stroma lacks myofibroblasts and the blood vessels are positive for α–smooth muscle actin, x10

Click here to view

The stroma of all cases of leukoplakia with epithelial dysplasia, 77.5% of the cases of OSMF and healthy oral mucosa were devoid of myofibroblasts resulting in a grade of “0” in all the cases [Figure 3] and [Figure 4]. The alpha SMA staining was restricted only to the smooth muscles of the blood vessels. Two of the cases of OSMF (12.5%) showed low staining index for myofibroblast and in both cases, the myofibroblasts were restricted to areas subjacent to the epithelium [Figure 5]. The immunohistochemical staining index for aSMA in normal, dysplastic epithelium, OSMF and OSCC is summarized in [Table 2].
Figure 3: Photomicrograph of a representative section of severe epithelial dysplasia.The stroma lacks myofibroblasts and the blood vessels are positive for α-smooth muscle actin, x10

Click here to view
Figure 4: Photomicrograph of a representative section of healthy mucosa. The stroma is devoid of myofibroblasts and the blood vessels are positive for α-smooth muscle actin, x10

Click here to view
Figure 5: Photomicrograph of a case of advanced oral submucous fibrosis showing myofibroblasts subjacent to the epithelium, x40

Click here to view
Table 2: Immunohistochemical staining index for α-smooth muscle actin in normal, dysplastic epithelium, OSMF and OSCC

Click here to view

There was a significant difference in the myofibroblasts level between the groups (Kruskal-Wallis test P < 0.001) indicating a fairly strong relationship between the presence of myofibroblasts among groups. To test which group is more prominently different follow-up tests were conducted to evaluate pairwise differences among the three groups, controlling for Type I error across tests by using the Bonferroni approach. Mann-Whitney U test was employed for these comparisons. However, there was no significant difference in the presence of myofibroblast between the PMDs group and the healthy mucosa group. These results are summarized in [Table 3] and [Table 4].
Table 3: Results of Kruskal-Wallis test

Click here to view
Table 4: Mann-Whitney test for multiple comparisons

Click here to view

 » Discussion Top

The present study was aimed to compare the presence of myofibroblasts in a possible continuum of lesions, starting from healthy oral mucosa, leukoplakia and OSMF, verrucous Carcinoma and SCC.

The present investigation demonstrated a phenotypic change in the stroma of OSCC characterized by a gain of aSMA positive myofibroblasts in 45.3% of the cases of OSCC (n = 42). This is in accordance with the previous studies.[13],[14],[15],[16],[17] The basement membrane normally separates the epithelial and the stromal components. The invading tumor cells cause a breach in the basement membrane, thereby bringing the epithelial components in close juxtaposition to the stromal components. This is accompanied by many stromal changes, one of which, that is most important and facilitates tumor progression is the trans differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts.[18] This emphasizes the necessity to understand the immensely supportive role played by tumor stroma in order to develop potent therapeutic targets.

Myofibroblasts may stimulate tumor progression by stimulating the growth of cancer cells, sustaining blood vessel formation and lymphangiogenesis, attenuating cancer cell death and stimulating invasion and metastasis by activating proteolysis.[19],[20],[21],[22],[23]

Among the three histological grades of OSCC, 41% of the cases showed absence of myofibroblasts and 59% showed the presence of myofibroblasts in OSCC. Myofibroblasts were present in 7 (53.84%, n = 13) cases of WDSCC, 6 cases (60%, n = 10) of MDSCC, 6 cases (66.6%, n = 9) of PDSCC [Table 1]. This heterogeneity in the presence of myofibroblasts has been previously reported [14],[16],[24] and could be attributed to the varied secretion of transforming growth factor-β by the tumor cells,[25] which is essential for myofibroblast differentiation.

The arrangement of myofibrolasts was confined to the stroma immediately adjacent to the tumor islands and tumor free stroma was devoid of myofibroblasts. The presence of myofibroblasts directly abutting the tumor cells suggest the possible role played by a tumor cell derived diffusible growth factor that promotes myofibroblast differentiation.[15] This close proximity of tumor cells and myofibroblasts also supports two more hypothesis:

  • Myofibroblasts can possibly be derived from the epithelial mesenchymal transition of the tumor cells [16],[17],[26]
  • Myofibroblasts form tunnels that lead the invasive tumor cells in vitro.[27] Therefore, myofibroblasts act as key players in collective tumor invasion as they are capable of remodeling the extracellular matrix and providing the mechanical propulsive force that facilitates invasion.[28]

There was no difference in the distribution of myofibroblasts between the three histological grades of SCC in the current study. This is in agreement with the results obtained by Kellermann et al.[28] and Etemad Moghadam et al.[13] These findings indicate that myofibroblasts transdifferentiation is a process that occurs independent of tumor differentiation.[13]

In the present study, the stroma of verrucous carcinoma (n = 10) showed complete absence of myofibroblasts. Verrucous carcinoma, considered to be a low grade variant of SCC,[12] histologically lacks a breach in the continuity of the basement membrane. This histological feature along with our study findings possibly underscores the need for a breach in the basement membrane to evoke a myofibroblastic response. This process is similar to the normal wound healing response where in myofibroblasts are activated as the normal homeostasis between the epithelium and connective tissue is perturbed. Yet another histological feature that can justify the absence of myofibroblasts in verrucous carcinoma is the intense inflammatory cell infiltrate that precedes the advancing front of the tumor. There is a trend for the presence of myofibroblasts to be inversely related to the inflammatory cell infiltration.[29] Taking into account these two features, the lack of myofibroblasts in the stroma of verrucous carcinoma may also be a contributory factor for its low-grade behavior.

The stroma of all cases of leukoplakia with mild dysplasia, moderate dysplasia and severe dysplasia were devoid of myofibroblasts. These results are in accordance with the previous studies in the literature.[5],[13],[14],[16],[29] Studies by Costea et al.[30] have shown that stromal cells, especially fibroblasts regulate epithelial morphogenesis. This control of fibroblasts is progressively lost during neoplastic progression. Therefore, dysplasia represents an intermediate step, wherein the stroma is losing its control over epithelial morphogenesis. Once the dysplastic epithelium accumulates further mutations resulting in the invasion, the stroma responds by acting as a co-conspirer. Hence, myofibroblasts differentiation is an event that occurs late in the carcinogenesis process. The literature along with our study findings indicate that stromal myofibroblasts cannot be used as a marker to predict malignant transformation potential of leukoplakia. This relative absence of myofibroblasts in the stroma of Leukoplakia may also reflect its low malignant transformation potential of 6.2%[31] despite its high prevalence.

OSMF is a chronic debilitating PMD with marked fibrosis. In comparison with the world population, the Indian population, in particular the south Indian population has a high prevalence of OSMF (prevalence rate of 1.2-4.57%) due to tobacco chewing habit.[32] Apart from being a high risk PMD, with a malignant transformation rate of 4.5%,[33] the disease also causes a significant morbidity affecting the quality of life. The study of myofibroblasts in cases of OSMF might possibly help us to understand its pathogenesis, the similarities; if any, between fibrosis in other organ systems and OSMF and the possible contributory role of fibrosis induced epithelial mesenchymal transition in its malignant transformation. There are previous studies where myofibroblast have been studied in cases of OSMF.[34]

In the current study, two cases of OSMF showed the presence of myofibroblasts. In both cases myofibroblasts, were distributed in the connective tissue subjacent to the epithelium. It has been observed that myofibroblasts derived from fibrotic tissues are more capable of promoting tumorigenesis through their interaction with carcinoma cells compared with the normal fibroblasts derived from normal tissues.[35] Altered tissue microenvironment, elicited by wounding and fibrosis, significantly increases the risk of tumour incidence and progression as demonstrated in lung, liver and breast.[35–38] Co-relating this to OSMF, the possibility of epithelial – mesenchymal interactions resulting in altered keratinocyte phenotype predisposing to the development of malignancy in OSMF has been reported.[39] Our study results showed the presence of myofibroblasts subjacent to the epithelium. In one among these cases, patient had developed SCC on the contralateral site. Putting it all together, their presence might represent an actively happening carcinogenic process or a more likelihood for malignant transformation in the near future. However, follow-up studies are required to confirm the significance of this finding.

On studying this continuum of lesions, it is summarized that the absence of myofibroblasts in the stroma of all cases of dysplasia, indicate myofibroblasts differentiation to be an event that occurs late in the carcinogenesis process and is not an ideal marker to relate its malignant transformation potential. As far as OSMF is concerned, the possible role of myofibroblast in the pathogenesis and in malignant transformation has been suggested. However, further research involving larger sample size along with follow-up studies will clearly elucidate our findings. It also confirms the essential role of myofibroblasts in the stroma of SCC promoting tumor progression. The absence of myofibroblasts in the stroma of verrucous carcinoma substantiates its biological behavior as a low grade variant of OSCC.

Future attempts should be directed in identifying the exact stage of occurrence of myofibroblasts in the stroma in PMDs and malignancy. This is quite a challenging task, as dysplasia is not a continuum of process as not all epithelial dysplasias progress to malignancy and malignancy might arise from any grade of dysplasia. The early event in carcinoma is most often missed in routine diagnosis making it difficult to identify these important stromal cells at an early stage.

 » Conclusion Top

The abundance of myofibroblasts in the stroma of OSCCs may be used as a stromal marker of aggressive behavior as it correlates with poor prognosis. It might help us in identifying a subset of patients who require more aggressive methods of therapy in order to improve their survival rate. Myofibroblasts, if proven to be a marker predictive of malignant transformation in OSMF, might help in an early intervention and patient counselling for prompt follow-up. This might help to curb the carcinogenesis process and provide an improved quality of life to the patients.

 » References Top

Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P. Global cancer statistics, CA Cancer J Clin 2005; 55:74-108.  Back to cited text no. 1
Warnakulasuriya S, Johnson NW, van der Waal I. Nomenclature and classification of potentially malignant disorders of the oral mucosa. J Oral Pathol Med 2007;36:575-80  Back to cited text no. 2
Chiu CJ, Chang ML, Chiang CP, Hahn LJ, Hsieh LL, Chen CJ. Interaction of collagen-related genes and susceptibility to betel quid induced oral submucous fibrosis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002;11:646-53.  Back to cited text no. 3
Micke P and Ostman A. Exploring the tumor environment: Cancer-associated fibroblasts as targets in cancer therapy. Expert Opin Ther Targets 2005;9:1217-33.  Back to cited text no. 4
Zidar N, Gale N, Kambic V, Fischinger J. Proliferation of myofibroblasts in the stroma of epithelial hyperplastic lesions and squamous carcinoma of the larynx. Oncology 2002;62:381-5.  Back to cited text no. 5
Tomas D and Kruslin B. The potential value of Myofibroblastic stromal reaction in the diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Prostate 2004;61:324-31.  Back to cited text no. 6
Vered M, Shohat I, Buchner A, Dayan D. Myofibroblasts in stroma of odontogenic cysts and tumors can contribute to variations in the biological behavior of lesions. Oral Oncol 2005;41:1028-33.  Back to cited text no. 7
Cintorino M, Bellizzi de Marco E, Leoncini P, Tripodi SA, Xu LJ, Sappino AP, et al. Expression of alpha-smooth-muscle actin in stromal cells of the uterine cervix during epithelial neoplastic changes. Int J Cancer 1991;47:843-6.  Back to cited text no. 8
Neville BW, Dam DD, Allen CM. Oral and maxillofacial pathology. 3rd ed., Philadelphia: WB sauders co. 2009.  Back to cited text no. 9
Johnson N, Franceschi S, Ferlay J, Schmid S, MacDonald DG, Bouquot JE. Squamous cell carcinoma. In: Barnes L, Eveson J, Reichart P, Sidransky D, editors. World Health Organization classification of tumors. Pathology and genetics of tumors of the head and neck. Lyon: IARC Press; 2005.p 168-175.  Back to cited text no. 10
Pindborg JJ, Sirasat SM. Oral Submucous fibrosis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1966; 22:764-9.  Back to cited text no. 11
El Mofty SK and Lewis JS. Cancer of the Oral Cavity and Oropharynx. In: Barnes L, editor. Surgical Pathology of the Head and Neck. 3rd ed., New York: Informa Health Care; 2009: p 285-341.  Back to cited text no. 12
Etemad-Moghadam S, Khalili M, Tirgary F, Alaeddini M. Evaluation of myofibroblasts in oral epithelial dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma. J Oral Pathol Med 2009;38:639–43.  Back to cited text no. 13
Barth PJ, Schenck ZU, Schweinsberg T, Ramaswamy A, Moll R. CD34+fibrocytes, alpha-smooth muscle antigenpositivemyofibroblasts, and CD117 expression in the stroma of invasive squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx. Virchows Arch 2004;444:231-4.  Back to cited text no. 14
Lewis MP, Lygoe KA, Nystrom ML, Anderson WP, Speight PM, Marshall JF, et al. Tumor derived TGF-beta1 modulates myofibroblast differentiation and promotes HGF/SF-dependent invasion of squamous carcinoma cells. Br J Cancer 2004;90:822-32.  Back to cited text no. 15
Kellermann MG, Sobral LM, da Silva SD, Zecchin KG, Graner E, Lopes MA, Nishimoto I, et al. Myofibroblasts in the stroma of oral squamous cell carcinoma are associated with poor prognosis. Histopathology 2007;51:849-53.  Back to cited text no. 16
Vered M, Dobriyan A, Dayan D, Yahalom R, Talmi YP, Bedrin L, et al. Tumor-host histopathologic variables, stromal myofibroblasts and risk score, are significantly associated with recurrent disease in tongue cancer. Cancer Sci 2010;101:274-80.  Back to cited text no. 17
Desmoulière A, Guyot C and Gabbiani G. The stroma reaction myofibroblast: A key player in the control of tumor cell behavior. Int J Dev Biol 2004;48:509-17.  Back to cited text no. 18
Sieuwerts AM, Klijn JG, Henzen-Logmans SC, Foekens JA. Cytokine-regulated urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator (uPA) production by human breast fibroblasts in vitro. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1999;55:9-20.  Back to cited text no. 19
Offersen BV, Nielsen BS, Hoyer-Hansen G, Rank F, Hamilton- Dutoit S, Overgaard J, et al. The myofibroblast is the predominant plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-expressing cell type in human breast carcinomas. Am J Pathol 2003;163:1887-99.  Back to cited text no. 20
Valenti MT, Azzarello G, Balducci E, Sartore S, Sandri M, Manconi R, et al. Conditioned medium from MCF-7 cell line induces myofibroblast differentiation, decreased cell proliferation, and increased apoptosis in cultured normal fibroblasts but not in fibroblasts from malignant breast tissue. Histochem J 2001;33:499-509.  Back to cited text no. 21
Pourreyron C, Dumortier J, Ratineau C, Nejjari M, Beatrix O, Jacquier MF, et al. Age-dependent variations of human and rat colon myofibroblasts in culture: Influence on their functional interactions with colon cancer cells. Int J Cancer 2003;104:28-35.  Back to cited text no. 22
Orimo A, Tomioka Y, Shimizu Y, Sato M, Oigawa S, Kamata K, et al. Cancer-associated myofibroblasts possess various factors to promote endometrial tumor progression. Clin Cancer Res 2001;7:3097-105.  Back to cited text no. 23
Marsh D, Suchak K, Moutasim KA, Vallath S, Hopper C, Jerjes W, et al. Stromal features are predictive of disease mortality in oral cancer patients. J Pathol 2010;223:470-81.  Back to cited text no. 24
Logullo AF, Nonogaki S, Miguel RE, Kowalski LP, Nishimoto IN, Pasini FS, et al. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients as related to prognosis. J Oral Pathol Med 2003;32:139-45.  Back to cited text no. 25
Vered M, Allon I, Buchner A, Dayan D. Stromal myofibroblasts accompany modifications in the epithelial phenotype of tongue dysplastic and malignant lesions. Cancer Microenviron 2009;2:49-57.  Back to cited text no. 26
Gaggioli C, Hooper S, Hidalgo-Carcedo C, Grosse R, Marshall JF, Harrington K, et al. Fibroblast-led collective invasion of carcinoma cells with differing roles for RhoGTPases in leading and following cells. Nat Cell Biol 2007;9:1392-400.  Back to cited text no. 27
Vered M, Dayan D, Yahalom R, Dobriyan A, Barshack I, Bello IO, et al. Cancer-associated fibroblasts and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in metastatic oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer 2010;127:1356-62.  Back to cited text no. 28
Kellermann MG, Sobral LM, da Silva SD, Zecchin KG, Graner E, Lopes MA, et al. Mutual paracrine effects of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and normal oral fibroblasts: Nduction of fibroblast to myofibroblast transdifferentiation and modulation of tumor cell proliferation. Oral Oncol 2008;44:509–17.  Back to cited text no. 29
Costea DE, Kulasekara K, Neppelberg E, Johannessen AC, Vintermyr OK. Species-specific fibroblasts required for triggering invasiveness of partially transformed oral keratinocytes. Am J Pathol 2006;168:1889-97.  Back to cited text no. 30
Petti S. Pooled estimate of world leukoplakia prevalence:A systematic review. Oral Oncol. 2003;39:770-80.  Back to cited text no. 31
Reddy V, PV Wanjari, Reddy B, Reddy P. Oral Submucous Fibrosis: Correlation of Clinical Grading to various habit factors. International Journal Of Dental Clinics 2011;3:21-4.  Back to cited text no. 32
Murti PR, Bhonsle RB, Gupta PC, Daftary DK, Pindborg JJ, Metha FS. Aetiology of oral submucous fibrosis with special reference to the role of areca nut chewing. J Oral Pathol Med 1995;24:145–52.  Back to cited text no. 33
Angadi PV, Kale AD, Hallikerimath S. Evaluation of myofibroblasts in oral submucous fibrosis: Correlation with disease severity. J Oral Pathol Med 2011;40:208-13.  Back to cited text no. 34
Hu M, Peluffo G, Chen H, Gelman R, Schnitt S, Polyak K. Role of COX-2 in epithelial-stromal cell interactions and progression of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2009;106:3372–7.  Back to cited text no. 35
Daniels CE, Jett RR. Does interstitial lung disease predispose to lung cancer? Curr Opin Pulm Med 2005;11:431-7.  Back to cited text no. 36
Bissell DM. Chronic liver injury, TGF-beta, and cancer. Exp Mol Med 2001;33:179-90.  Back to cited text no. 37
Moinfar F, Man YG, Arnould L, Bratthauer GL, Ratschek M, Tavassoli FA. Concurrent and independent genetic alterations in the stromal and epithelial cells of mammary carcinoma: Implications for tumorigenesis. Cancer Res 2000;60:2562-6.  Back to cited text no. 38
Lalli A, Tilakaratne WM, Ariyawardana A, Fitchett C, Leigh IM, Hagi-Pavli E, et al. An altered keratinocyte phenotype in oral submucous fibrosis: Correlation of keratin K17 expression with disease severity. J Oral Pathol Med 2008;37:211-20.  Back to cited text no. 39


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]

This article has been cited by
1 Role of programmed cell death 4 in myofibroblast differentiation in oral submucous fibrosis
KarishmaMadhusudan Desai, AlkaDinesh Kale, PunnyaV Angadi, UmaV Datar, Chetan Belaldavar, PraveenR Arany
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. 2021; 25(3): 430
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Comparison of expression of myofibroblasts in normal oral mucosa, oral epithelial dysplasia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma using a-SMA and vimentin: An immunohistochemical study
Amani Mahajan, Andleeb Manhas, Tania Aneja, Swati Parhar, Priyanka Kumari, Anu Anubhuti, HarkanwalP Singh
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. 2020; 9(8): 4368
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 The role of myofibroblasts in the progression of oral submucous fibrosis: A systematic review
Vijay Wadhwan,Arvind Venkatesh,Vandana Reddy,Sangeeta Malik
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. 2019; 23(2): 257
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Ki67, CD105 and a-smooth muscle actin expression in disease progression model of oral submucous fibrosis
Amol R. Gadbail,Minal S. Chaudhary,Sachin C. Sarode,Shailesh M. Gondivkar,Lalita Belekar,Mugdha P. Mankar-Gadbail,Ravi Dande,Satyajit A. Tekade,Monal B. Yuwanati,Shankargouda Patil
Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Myofibroblasts in oral potentially malignant disorders: Is it related to malignant transformation?
RD Coletta,T Salo
Oral Diseases. 2018; 24(1-2): 84
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Oral lichen-planus-associated fibroblasts acquire myofibroblast characteristics and secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide stimulation
Liping Wang,Yinshen Yang,Xiaoqin Xiong,Ting Yu,Xinhong Wang,Wenxia Meng,Haiyan Wang,Gang Luo,Linhu Ge
BMC Oral Health. 2018; 18(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Ki67, CD105, and a-SMA expression supports the transformation relevant dysplastic features in the atrophic epithelium of oral submucous fibrosis
Amol R. Gadbail,Minal Chaudhary,Sachin C. Sarode,Shailesh Gondivkar,Satyajit A. Tekade,Prajakta Zade,Alka Hande,Gargi S. Sarode,Shankargouda Patil,Gururaj Arakeri
PLOS ONE. 2018; 13(7): e0200171
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 A subtype of cancer-associated fibroblasts with lower expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin suppresses stemness through BMP4 in oral carcinoma
Ankit Kumar Patel,Kavya Vipparthi,Venu Thatikonda,Indu Arun,Samsiddhi Bhattacharjee,Rajeev Sharan,Pattatheyil Arun,Sandeep Singh
Oncogenesis. 2018; 7(10)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Myofibroblasts could be recruited in a chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2-dependent manner in pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis
Gargi Sarode,Sachin C. Sarode,Revati Deshmukh,Prashant Raktade,Shankargouda Patil
Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine. 2017; 46(6): 443
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


Print this article  Email this article


  Site Map | What's new | Copyright and Disclaimer | Privacy Notice
  Online since 1st April '07
  © 2007 - Indian Journal of Cancer | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow