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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 53  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 304-308

Place of birth and risk of gallbladder cancer in India

1 Centre for Cancer Epidemiology, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 Chiplunkar Lab, Advanced Center for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer, Tata Memorial Centre, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
3 Department of Surgical Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
4 Department of Digestive Diseases and Clinical Nutrition, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
5 Section of Cancer Surveillance, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France
6 Centre for Global Health, National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHSS, Bethesda, USA

Correspondence Address:
R Dikshit
Centre for Cancer Epidemiology, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0019-509X.197723

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Context: Within India, the incidence of gallbladder cancer (GBC) is characterized by marked geographical variation; however, the reasons for these differences are unclear. AIMS: To evaluate the role of place of birth, length of residence, and effect of migration from high- to low-risk region on GBC development. Settings and Design: Population-based cancer registries (PBCRs); case–control study. Subjects and Methods: Data of PBCRs were used to demonstrate geographical variation in GBC incidence rates. A case–control study data examined the role of birth place, residence length, and effect of migration in etiology of GBC. Statistical Analysis: Rate ratios for different PBCRs were estimated using Chennai Cancer Registry as the reference population. Odds ratios (ORs) for developing GBC in a high-risk region compared to a low-risk region and associated 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated through unconditional logistic regression models using case–control study. Results: GBC shows marked variation in incidence with risk highest in Northeast regions and lowest in South India. OR of 4.82 (95% CI: 3.87–5.99) was observed for developing GBC for individuals born in a high-risk region compared to those born in a low-risk region after adjusting for confounders. A dose–response relationship with increased risk with increased length of residence in a high-risk region was observed (OR lifetime 5.58 [95% CI: 4.42–7.05]; Ptrend ≤ 0.001). The risk persisted even if study participant migrated from high- to low-risk region (OR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.02–1.82). Conclusions: The present study signifies the importance of place of birth, length of stay, and effect of migration from high- to low-risk region in the development of GBC. The data indicate role of environmental and genetic factors in etiology of disease.


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