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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 59  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 56-67

BRCA mutations: Implications of genetic testing in ovarian cancer


1 Department of Medical Oncology, Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute, Rohini, New Delhi, India
2 Consultant Medical Oncology, Manipal Hospitals, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Vineet Talwar
Department of Medical Oncology, Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute, Rohini, New Delhi
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijc.IJC_1394_20

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Ovarian cancer (OC) is one of the most lethal gynecological cancers with a 5-year survival rate that ranges from 30% to 40%. Breast cancer genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) play a key role in maintaining genomic stability. Mutations in BRCA1/2 genes lead to the accumulation of double-strand breaks, resulting in tumorigenesis. The risk of developing OC in women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is 39% and 11%, respectively, by 70 years of age. BRCA1/2 mutation testing is thus important to identify women at greatest risk of developing OC in addition to its impact on diagnosis, prognosis, and targeted therapy. Genetic testing is required to identify the BRCA mutations and thus select patients who can benefit from polyadenosine diphosphate (ADP)–ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitor therapy. Tumor BRCA mutation testing can detect both germline and somatic mutations allowing implementation of preventive strategies on a broader population. Various international guidelines recommend BRCA1/2 mutation genetic testing in all OC patients irrespective of age and family history. This review focuses on the role of BRCA mutation testing in OC.






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