Indian Journal of Cancer
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Survival analysis and predictors of long-term outcomes following radical nephrectomy with inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombectomy in renal cell carcinoma

 Department of Urology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Amlesh Seth,
Department of Urology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijc.IJC_5_20

Background: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) presents with inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombus in 10%–30% cases and surgical management forms the mainstay of the treatment. The objective of this study is to assess the outcomes of the patients undergoing radical nephrectomy with IVC thrombectomy. Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients undergoing open radical nephrectomy with IVC thrombectomy between 2006 till 2018 was done. Results: A total of 56 patients were included. The mean (±standard deviation) age was 57.1 (±12.2) years. The number of patients with levels I, II, III, and IV thrombus were 4, 29,10, and 13, respectively. The mean blood loss was 1851.8 mL, and the mean operative time was 303.3 minutes. Overall, the complication rate was 51.7%, while the perioperative mortality rate was 8.9%. The mean duration of hospital stay was 10.6 ± 6.4 days. The majority of the patients had clear cell carcinoma (87.5%). There was a significant association between grade and stage of thrombus (P = 0.011). Using Kaplan–Meier survival analysis, the median overall survival (OS) was 75 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 43.5–106.5) months, and the median recurrence-free survival (RFS) was 48 (95% CI = 33.1–62.3) months. Age (P = 0.03), presence of systemic symptoms (P = 0.01), radiological size (P = 0.04), histopathological grade (P = 0.01), level of thrombus (P = 0.04), and invasion of thrombus into IVC wall (P = 0.01) were found to be significant predictors of OS. Conclusion: The management of RCC with IVC thrombus poses a major surgical challenge. Experience of a center along with high-volume and multidisciplinary facility particularly cardiothoracic facility provides better perioperative outcome. Though surgically challenging, it offers good overall-survival and recurrence-free survival.

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