Indian Journal of Cancer
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Validation of the hospital anxiety depression scale - Marathi version in detecting anxiety and depression in cancer patients and caregivers

1 Department of Palliative Medicine; Psycho-oncology Unit, Tata Memorial Hospital; Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 Psycho-oncology Unit, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Jayita K Deodhar,
Department of Palliative Medicine; Psycho-oncology Unit, Tata Memorial Hospital; Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijc.IJC_1321_20

Background: The Hospital and Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) is useful for screening depression and anxiety in cancer. It has not been validated in the Marathi language, which is the third most common language in India. We aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the Marathi-translated version of HADS in cancer patients and their caregivers. Methods: In a cross-sectional study design, we administered the Hospital and Anxiety Depression Scale-Marathi version (HADS-Marathi) to 100 participants (50 patients and 50 caregivers) after obtaining their informed consent. The team Psychiatrist, who was blind to the HADS-Marathi scores, interviewed all participants and identified the presence of anxiety and depressive disorders using the diagnostic criteria of the International Classification of Diseases – 10th edition. We measured internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha, receiver operating characteristics, and factor structure. The study was registered with the Clinical Trials Registry-India (CTRI) Results: The internal consistency of HADS-Marathi was good with 0.815, 0.797, and 0.887 for anxiety and depression subscales and total scale, respectively. The area under curve figures were 0.836 (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.756 - 0.915), 0.835 (95% [CI]: 0.749–0.921), and 0.879 (95% [CI] 0.806–0.951) for anxiety and depression subscales, and total scale, respectively. The best cutoffs identified were 8 (anxiety), 7 (depression), and 15 (total). The scale displayed a three-factor structure, with two depression subscale and one anxiety subscales items loading on to the third factor. Conclusion: We found that the HADS-Marathi version is a reliable and valid instrument for use in cancer patients. However, we found a three-factor structure, possibly reflecting a cross-cultural effect.

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