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   2004| October-December  | Volume 41 | Issue 4  
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A review of association of dietary factors in gallbladder cancer
Arundhati Rai, SC Mohapatra, HS Shukla
October-December 2004, 41(4):147-151
Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the prominent malignancy of hepato-biliary tract, being the fifth most common carcinoma for gastrointestinal tract in United States. Epidemiological studies world wide have implicated dietary factors in the development of gallbladder cancer. The ecological evidences indicate considerable geographic variation in the incidence of gallbladder cancer. However the variations in GBC incidence of different populations might be partly determined by their dietary variations. Higher intake of energy and carbohydrate possibly increase the risk of gallbladder cancer. Obesity plays an important role in the causation of GBC. Adequate intake of fruits and vegetables probably reduce the risk of GBC. This nutritional preventive effect against GBC could be attributed to high content of vitamins, carotenes and fibers. They can not be too emphatically stated as the sole determinants of GBC. It is apparently clear that a variety of essential nutrients can significantly modify the carcinogenic process. Furthermore, an attempt has been made to establish an association between dietary factors and the occurrence of gallbladder cancer.
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Hemangioma of base of tongue
Sajid S Qureshi, Devendra A Chaukar, Kumar A Pathak, Vikram D Sanghvi, Tanuja Sheth, NH Merchant, Anil K Dcruz
October-December 2004, 41(4):181-183
Although vascular malformations of the tongue comprise a significant portion of head and neck angiodysplastic lesions, hemangioma of base of tongue is rare. We report a case of hemangioma of base of tongue extending to the supraglottis, which necessitated an extended supraglottic laryngectomy. Patient had an uneventful recovery and at three year, follow-up has a normal speech and no difficulty in swallowing or aspiration. More importantly, there was no recurrence of hemangioma or bleeding. Although hemangiomas may be treated by various conservative methods, occasionally patient may require surgical excision as in the present case due to the repeated bleeding episode and difficult access. A high index of suspicion and radiological investigations should be performed if the clinical presentation is atypical for malignancy, as in our case.
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Brainstem gliomas – A clinicopathological study of 45 cases with p53 immunohistochemistry
Prerna B Badhe, Pritika P Chauhan, Nishaki K Mehta
October-December 2004, 41(4):170-174
BACKGROUND : Brainstem tumors represent 10% of central nervous system tumors, accounting for 30% of pediatric posterior fossa tumors. AIMS : The aim of this study was to clinicopathologically correlate 45 cases of brain stem gliomas and determine the occurrence and prognostic significance of p53 expression. MATERIALS AND METHOD : 45 cases of brain stem gliomas encountered during a 19-year period. 30 were diagnosed by surgical biopsy and 15 at autopsy. In 25 cases p53 immunohistochemistry (Avidin Biotinylated technique) was performed. The WHO brain tumor classification and Stroink’s CT classification were applied. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED : Chi square test. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS : 51 % of gliomas were observed in the first decade of life. The female to male ratio was 1.04: 1. The commonest presenting features were cranial nerve palsies (33%) and cerebellar signs (29.8%). 55.55% of cases were located in the pons, 31.01% in the medulla and 13.33% in the midbrain. Diffuse astrocytomas were seen in 40 cases (5% were Grade I, 47.5%Grade II, 32.5% Grade III and 15% Grade IV) and pilocytic astrocytomas in 5 cases. Grade IV patients had 2- 3 mitoses /10 high power fields and had a poorer survival rate.Grade II astrocytomas were treated with excision and radiotherapy, while grade III and IV tumors were treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy (CCNU). Improvement was noted in 20% of patients postoperatively. The outcome was better in patients who were treated surgically. p53 is a frequently mutated gene in brain stem astrocytomas. It was found in 50 % of glioblastoma multiforme, 28.57% of grade III astrocytoma and 12.5% of grade II astrocytoma, while grade 1 astrocytomas failed to express p53 protein. p53 positivity was more in high grade lesions, decreasing significantly in lower grade lesions.
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Omentoplasty versus no omentoplasty for esophagogastrostomy after surgery for cancer of cardia and esophagus
Binay Thakur, Chun Shan Zhang, Zhen Bo Tan
October-December 2004, 41(4):167-169
BACKGROUND : The standard of care of patients with cancer of cardia and esophagus still remains surgery in early stage. One of the most feared complications after such procedure is anastomotic leak. AIM : We present our experience with omental wrapping of anastomosis (omentoplasty) to decrease the anastomotic leak. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : Retrospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An analysis of 50 consecutive patients, who underwent surgical resection for cancer of cardia and esophagus at BPKMCH, is done. For cancer of esophagus, a 10 cm proximal tumor free margin and for lesions of cardia, at least 5 cm margin was achieved. A 5 cm distal tumor free margin was achieved in each case. A subset of patients was considered for omentoplasty after completion of anastomosis. RESULTS : There were 29 male and 21 female with a mean age of 56.3 years. The average postoperative stay was 13.14 days. The stomach was the organ of substitute in 48 and jejunum in 2 cases. Omentoplasty was done in 37 cases, whereas in 13 cases, no omental wrapping was done. The rate of anastomotic leak was 6%. There was no leak from anastomosis placed at chest, whereas three cases of leak was observed in the anastomosis at the level of neck ( P=.013). Overall, there was no leak in omentoplasty group, whereas there were three cases with leak in the group without omentoplasty ( P=0.003). CONCLUSION : Omentoplasty should be considered in every case after surgical resection for cancer of cardia and esophagus.
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FISH for HER-2/neu in breast cancer: Standardization makes the difference!
Sumita Gokhale, Zoran Gatalica, Amin Mohammad, AI Rampy, VN Velagaleti Gopalrao
October-December 2004, 41(4):152-158
CONTEXT : Overexpression of HER-2/neu oncogene in breast cancer patients is correlated with disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The most commonly used methods for the detection of HER-2/neu status are immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). However, therse is a lot of controversy with regard to the best method. Most of the FISH studies chose arbitrary cut-off levels for positive results (10%) and had no validation. AIM : In order to address these issues, we designed a pilot study of 38 samples with known IHC status representing all 4 categories. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : FISH was performed using Vysis Pathvysion™ probe. For validation, 5 cases of reduction mammoplasty were analyzed using same protocols. RESULTS : Our results showed significant discordance between FISH and IHC. The rate of discordance was much higher in the 0, 1+, and 2+ categories compared to published literature. This could be due to the lower cut-off rates for positive amplification established by validation in our study (5.7% vs 10%). Our analysis showed that FISH positive and IHC negative patients have a poor prognosis in terms of DFS and OS compared to FISH negative and IHC negative patients. Further, our results also showed that IHC in comparison to FISH has a comparable specificity (98%), but has a very low sensitivity (46%). CONCLUSION : Based on these results, we consider FISH to be the gold standard for detecting HER-2/neu status in breast cancer.
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Gastrointestinal stromal tumour of the colon presenting with intestinal obstruction
Sanjay Gupta, Rajpal Singh Punia, Robin Kaushik
October-December 2004, 41(4):175-177
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumours are the commonest mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, the stomach and small intestine being the favored sites. They rarely occur in the colon and rectum and esophagus. The diagnosis is difficult, especially in the rarer sites, since there are no pathognomic features to suggest GIST on preoperative clinical examination and investigations, and only a detailed histopathological analysis of the specimen reveals their true nature. The case of a young female patient who presented with intestinal obstruction due a GIST of the transverse colon is reported. The relevant literature is briefly reviewed.
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Pancreatic involvement in Von Hippel-Lindau disease
Mustafa Eras, Mustafa Yenigun, Cengiz Acar, Baki Kumbasar, Fuat Sar, Turgay Bilge
October-December 2004, 41(4):159-161
BACKGROUND : Involvement of the pancreas in Von Hippel-Lindau disease that is a tumor predisposing syndrome mentioned in literature with some morbid and mortal progression. AIMS : For evaluation the faith of the pancreatic involvemet in VHL disease we analysed our patient population with VHL disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS : 12 of the 56 patients that were evaluated in our institute with the diagnosis of Von Hippel-Lindau disease had pancreatic involvement. They are periodically examined for 5 years follow up period. Their retrospective analysis was accomplished. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS : Pancreatic involvement in our patient population disclosed lesions that were multicysts or serous cystadenomas. During follow up period, we did not observe significant morbidity related to pancreatic involvement. Repeated radiological examination of pancreatic lesions disclosed insignificant modifications such as slight increase or decrease in size. Whereas we considered morbidity and mortality related to renal and central nervous system pathologies in VHL disease. Shortly, even pancratic involvement in VHL disease requires close clinical follow up, morbidity and mortality in this case is not severe as in renal and the central nervous system involvement.
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Early occurrence of acute myeloid leukemia following adjuvant radiotherapy and higher cumulative dose of cyclophosphamide in carcinoma breast
A Srivastava, M Murari, NR Datta
October-December 2004, 41(4):178-180
We report a case of cancer breast developing acute myeloid leukemia (AML) within a relatively short interval of two and a half years of her primary treatment. This could be attributed to post operative radiotherapy and a higher cumulative dose of cyclophosphamide (14.4 gm) which had to be given as a part of her combination chemotherapy regimen, initially as adjuvant and then later as salvage chemotherapy. The successful salvage therapy for secondary AML instituted in this case is also discussed.
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Tobacco use among school personnel in Rajasthan, India
Rameshwar Sharma, Mangesh S Pednekar, AU Rehman, Rakesh Gupta
October-December 2004, 41(4):162-166
BACKGROUND : A very little information about tobacco use among school personnel is available. This is a step to have cross country and within country data using standardized methodology. AIMS : To obtain baseline information about tobacco use prevalence, knowledge and attitude among school personnel. STUDY DESIGN : Two stage cluster sample. SETTING: A state of Rajasthan. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A cross-sectional study, using anonymous self-administered questionnaire. A sample of schools with probability proportional to the enrolment in grades 8–10. All school personnel in sampled schools were eligible to participate.STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Percentage, 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: School response rate was 97.4% (75/77) and school personnel response rate was 67.2% (909/1352). Majority of school personnel (men 69%, women 31%) were school teachers (78.3%). The prevalence of ever any tobacco use was reported by 35.9%, more among men than women (46.2% vs. 13.0%). The prevalence of current daily smoking was reported by 14.4% (men 20.6%, women 0.8%) and occasional by 7.3%, where as current daily smokeless tobacco use was 11.7% (men 16.4%, women 1.1%) and occasional 13.6%. Current daily tobacco use was significantly more among men than women. Four out of nine reported their schools have a tobacco prohibiting policy for both students (48.4%) as well as for school personnel (44.4%) and about same (47.2%) reported their schools enforce its tobacco policy or rule. Over 85% of all school personnel strongly support the tobacco control policies and wanted training in tobacco cessation and prevention. CONCLUSION : First study from Rajasthan to report tobacco use among school personnel. School personnel not only strongly support the tobacco control policies but also ready to work for its successful implementation with proper training.
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