Indian Journal of Cancer
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   2008| October-December  | Volume 45 | Issue 4  
    Online since December 29, 2008

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Awareness of breast cancer in women of an urban resettlement colony
P Somdatta, N Baridalyne
October-December 2008, 45(4):149-153
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.44662  PMID:19112202
Background: Breast cancer accounts for 19-34% of all cancer cases among women in India. There is a high mortality due to late stage diagnosis as patients usually present at an advanced stage because of lack of awareness and non-existent breast cancer screening programs. Aim : To determine the awareness about breast cancer among women in an urban resettlement colony in Delhi. Settings and Design: A community based, cross-sectional study carried out in a resettlement colony in South Delhi. Materials and Methods: Semi-structured interview schedule was used to collect information regarding breast cancer. Modified Kuppuswamy scale was used for assessing the socio-economic status. Results and Conclusions: A total of 333 women were included. The mean age was 36 years±15.1 and 46% were illiterate. Only 185 (56%) women were aware of breast cancer; among them, 51% knew about at least one of the signs /symptoms, 53% were aware that breast cancer can be detected early, and only 35% mentioned about risk factors. Thus, awareness about breast cancer is low amongst women in this community. There is a need for awareness generation programs to educate women about breast cancer, propagation of correct messages and promote early detection of breast cancer.
  16,325 1,168 46
Newer therapeutic molecules for multiple myeloma
P Jain, S Gupta, PM Parikh
October-December 2008, 45(4):142-148
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.44661  PMID:19112201
Therapeutic management of multiple myeloma (MM) for the last several decades has mainly involved regimens based on use of glucocorticoids and cytotoxic chemotherapeutics. Despite progress in delineating the activity of such regimens, at either conventional or high doses, MM has remained an incurable disease. This has sparked major interest in the development of novel therapies that in part capitalize on recent advances in our understanding of the biology of MM, including the molecular mechanisms by which MM cell-host bone marrow (BM) interactions regulate tumor-cell growth, survival, and drug resistance in the BM milieu. Herein, we review the latest progress in the development of these novel anti-MM therapies, with major focus on therapies which have translated from preclinical evaluation to clinical application, including thalidomide and its more potent immunomodulatory derivatives (IMiD), the first-in-class proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (formerly known as PS-341). Search strategy included Medline using the terms 'Myeloma and Newer Drugs' citations relevant to treatment guidelines issued in 1999 and 2008 were screened.
  4,825 994 1
Integrated positron emission tomography/computed tomography fusion imaging: An emerging gold standard in lung cancer
SC Joshi, I Pant, F Hamzah, G Kumar, AN Shukla
October-December 2008, 45(4):137-141
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.44660  PMID:19112200
Positron emission tomography (PET) has emerged as an important diagnostic tool in the management of lung cancers. Although PET is sensitive in detection of lung cancer, but FDG (2-deoxy-2- 18 fluro-D-glucose) is not tumor specific and may accumulate in a variety of nonmalignant conditions occasionally giving false positive result. Addition of CT to PET improves specificity foremost, but also sensitivity in tumor imaging. Thus, PET/CT fusion images are a more accurate test than either of its individual components and are probably also better than side-by-side viewing of images from both modalities. PET/CT fusion images are useful in differentiating between malignant and benign disease, fibrosis and recurrence, staging and in changing patient management to more appropriate therapy. With analysis and discussion it appears that PET/ CT fusion images have the potential to dramatically improve our ability to manage the patients with lung cancer and is contributing to our understanding of cancer cell biology and in development of new therapies.
  4,512 799 16
Evaluation of serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen as a novel biomarker for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in Egyptian patients
MM Hussein, AA Ibrahim, HM Abdella, IF Montasser, MI Hassan
October-December 2008, 45(4):167-172
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.44666  PMID:19112206
Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common malignancy in the world. In Egypt, HCC was reported to account for about 4.7% of chronic liver disease (CLD) patients. Squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) has been reported to be strongly expressed in HCC tissue hampering its extensive use in clinical practice. Aim: To evaluate the clinical usefulness of serum SCCA levels as a serological marker for early detection of HCC among high-risk patients compared to AFP. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of three groups. Group A included 30 patients with CLD diagnosed based on clinical, laboratory, and ultrasonographical investigations; group B included 49 patients with HCC diagnostically confirmed by spiral CT, elevated alfafetoprotein (AFP), and/or liver biopsy; and group C, the control group, included 15 healthy subjects matched for age and sex. All groups were subjected to thorough history taking, full clinical examination, and laboratory investigations including liver functions, viral markers, and AFP and SCCA estimation using ELISA technique. Results: This study revealed a highly significant difference between patients with HCC, CLD, and controls regarding serum SCCA levels (5.138 ± 7.689, 1.133 ± 0.516, and 0.787 ± 0.432 ng/ml, respectively). SCCA level was persistently elevated in patients with HCC with normal AFP levels representing its useful role in early detection and follow-up of patients treated for HCC. The area under the curve (AUC) of SCCA was 0.869 (95% CI 0.783-0.929), the cut-off value was established at 1.5 ng/ml with sensitivity of 77.6% and specificity of 84.4%). The difference between AUC of SCCA and that of AFP was 0.09 which mounted statistical significance. Conclusions: SCCA could represent a useful tool as a marker for detection of HCC.
  4,733 563 24
Ductal adenocarcinoma of ventral surface of the tongue: An unusual presentation
R Halli, R Kini, S Bither
October-December 2008, 45(4):176-178
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.44668  PMID:19112208
There are very few cases reported of adenocarcinoma of the tongue. We report an unusual case of a 60-year-old female having a large, pedunculated ductal adenocarcinoma that had arisen from ventral surface of the tongue. The lesion was managed by surgery.
  3,575 265 3
Renal function in late survivors of Iranian children with cancer: Single centre experience
K Arjmandi-Rafsanjani, N Hooman, P Vosoug
October-December 2008, 45(4):154-157
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.44663  PMID:19112203
Context: One of the side-effects of chemotherapy is nephrotoxicity, whose incidence rate has reportedly been higher in pediatrics. Early diagnosis of renal dysfunction may decrease the morbidity in those with partial or complete remission by avoiding nephrotoxic agents and promoting regular follow-up. Aims: We studied the frequency of renal dysfunction in pediatric patients whose therapy was completed regardless of the type of chemotherapy. Settings and Design: Prospective cross sectional study in Hematoncology department of children's hospital. Materials and Methods:0 One hundred and eight pediatric cancer patients (44 females, 64 males), who were at least one year off therapy, enrolled in the study from 2003 to 2005. Demographic data, mean dosages of anticancer drugs, history of other nephrotoxic agents, nephrectomy, radiotherapy and acute renal failure were recorded. Fasting blood and urine samples were collected to calculate fractional excretion of magnesium, calcium, phosphate, urine protein to urine creatinine ratio, creatinine clearance (using Schwartz formula), urine analysis, urine osmolality and blood gas analysis. Statistical analysis used: T-test, Chi square and binary logistic regression were used to compare means, frequency and correlation respectively. P values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Renal dysfunction was seen in 25.2% of cases. These abnormalities included hypercalciuria (7.2%), phosphaturia (13.5%), magnesuria (3.6%), glomerular filtration rate less than 90 ml/min (7.5%), metabolic acidosis (3%), metabolic alkalosis (10%), urinary concentration defect (19%), proteinuria (7.2%), glycosuria (2%), microscopic hematuria (4%), sterile pyuria (6%), and hypertension (8%). We found only Procarbazin as an independent variable of nephrotoxicity (P<0.05). Conclusions: Mild to moderate tubular dysfunction has been observed in the survivors of cancer disease.
  3,381 429 11
Is there a positive effect of participation on a clinical trial for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer?
S Rajappa, S Gundeti, S Uppalapati, S Jiwatani, A Abhyankar, C Pal, R Digumarti
October-December 2008, 45(4):158-163
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.44664  PMID:19112204
Background: There is general belief that patients who enrolled on a clinical trial have better outcomes compared to those who are treated outside of a trial. We analyzed if there was a 'trial effect' for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with chemotherapy. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of cohorts of patients with advanced NSCLC who received chemotherapy inside and outside of a clinical trial were analyzed for response rates (RR), progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), 1 and 2 year survival. Results: There were 194 patients who received chemotherapy of which, 54 were on a clinical trial and 140 outside of it. For the whole group, the RR, median PFS, OS, one and two-year survivals were 35.4%, six months (range, 2-70), seven months (range, 2-72), 29.8% and 9.7% respectively. The differences in RR and PFS of patients who were treated inside and outside of a clinical trial were not significant (P=0.6164, 0.0881). The differences in median OS and one-year survivals between the groups were significant (P=0.0052, 0.022). For the whole group, patients who received II line chemotherapy had better OS (P£0.0001). More patients in the trial group received II line chemotherapy (P=0.0004).The difference in the median OS between the groups continued to be significant even after patients who received II line chemotherapy were censored (P=0.0437). Conclusion: Patients with advanced NSCLC who were treated inside of a clinical trial had better OS compared to those who were treated outside of it.
  3,200 355 1
Adenocarcinoma at angle of treitz: A report of two cases with review of literature
Pushpa Koli, VV Dewoolkar, U Butale
October-December 2008, 45(4):179-181
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.44669  PMID:19112209
We report two patients with adenocarcinoma at angle of treitz who presented with upper GI(gastrointestinal) obstruction and underwent segmental resection of duodeno-jejunal junction. Preoperative investigations failed to reveal the nature of the lesion suggesting the elusive nature of these lesions, importance of clinical suspicion and decision-making.
  3,140 304 4
Leiomyoma of the nasal septum
R Singh, P Hazarika, R Balakrishnan, N Gangwar, P Pujary
October-December 2008, 45(4):173-175
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.44667  PMID:19112207
Leiomyoma of nasal cavity is an extremely rare and unusual benign mass that uncommonly arises from the nasal septum. These are vascular or nonvascular masses of myogenic origin. We present a rare case of leiomyoma arising from the nasal septum and discuss its management using KTP 532 laser.
  3,111 306 17
Application of computed aided detection in breast masses diagnosis
V Changizi, M Giti, A Arab Kheradmand
October-December 2008, 45(4):164-166
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.44665  PMID:19112205
Breast cancer is the most widespread cancer in women. The life-time risk of a woman developing this disease has been established as one in eight. Currently mammography is a standard method and could decrease breast cancer mortality. Unfortunately, negative mammograms don't exclude cancer. The sensitivity of mammography ranges from approximately 70% to 90% and it should be higher. Materials and Methods: The sample contained 255 cases taken from Imaging Center of Imam Khomaini Hospital. Bilateral mammograms in both craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique projections were used. Two experienced Radiologists reviewed images before and after using CAD system. Tumors (including malignant and benign) and normal breast tissues were confirmed by histological correlation. Results: Of 255 cases 92 were not recommended for further work-up. Of 163 cases 90 were normal mass, 23 malignant tumors, 16 benign tumors and 22 cysts were detected by CAD system. The remaining cases were finalized only by biopsy. Conclusion: CAD could be utilized for breast mass detection. This is a practical technique with low cost.
  2,698 382 2
Defining age cut off age for "Young patients" with breast cancer
CO Reddy, V Anuradha, G Mukherjee, PP Bapsy
October-December 2008, 45(4):182-182
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.44670  PMID:19112211
  2,516 277 1
Ipsilateral axillary tubercular lymphadenopathy, contralateral osseous tuberculosis in a case of ductal carcinoma of breast
BN Wani, SN Jajoo
October-December 2008, 45(4):182-184
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.44671  PMID:19112210
  2,498 256 5
Transitional cell cancer of ureter misdiagnosed as pelviureteric junction obstruction: Pitfalls of standard diagnostic tools
A Goel, D Singh, A Goel
October-December 2008, 45(4):184-185
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.44672  PMID:19112212
  2,172 265 4
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