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   2015| July-September  | Volume 52 | Issue 3  
    Online since February 18, 2016

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Single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes based drug delivery system: Cancer therapy: A review
B Dineshkumar, K Krishnakumar, AR Bhatt, D Paul, J Cherian, A John, S Suresh
July-September 2015, 52(3):262-264
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176720  PMID:26905103
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are advanced nano-carrier for delivery of drugs especially anti-cancer drugs. In the field of CNT-based drug delivery system, both single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-walled nanotubes (MWCNTs) can be used for targeting anticancer drugs in tissues and organs, where the high therapeutic effect is necessary. Benefits of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in drug delivery systems are; avoiding solvent usage and reducing the side effects. Therefore, the present review article described about achievement of SWCNTs and MWCNTs to deliver the anticancer drugs with different cancerous cell lines.
  12 5,159 461
Cystosarcoma phyllodes: Pathological enigma: A retrospective review of 162 cases
RP Narayanakar, DM Gangaiah, S Althaf, K Dev, V Kurpad, J Gurawalia
July-September 2015, 52(3):365-368
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176698  PMID:26905140
Purpose: Phyllodes tumor (PT) is a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm comprising <1% of all breast tumors. Clinical spectrum ranges from benign (B), borderline (BL), and locally recurrent to malignant (M) and metastatic type. The aim of our study was to analyze the clinicopathological factors, compare treatment options, and evaluate outcome in patients with PT. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 162 women with PT. The surgical intervention varied from simple excision (lumpectomy)/wide local excision (WLE) in benign cases to simple/modified radical or radical mastectomy (SM/MRM/RM) in malignant and recurrent tumors. Results: Out of 162 patients, B, BL, and M were 95 (58.64%), 29 (18%), and 38 (23.45%), respectively. Mean age, duration of lump, and size were 38 ± 8 years, 28 ± 10 months, and 12 ± 5 cm, respectively. Recurrence rate with B, BL, and M was 15.78%, 41.37%, and 55.26%, respectively (P = 0.00001). As compared to WLE (22%), SM (23.8%), and MRM/RM (14.2%), recurrence was higher with lumpectomy (48.9%) (P = 0.004). Positive correlation was found between recurrence rate with the size of tumor (P = 0.008) and also number of recurrence with holoprosencephaly (P = 0.047). There was no association between the number of recurrences and size of tumor (P = 0.63). Malignant PT was seen in 38 (24%) and distant metastasis was seen in 7 (18%). Mean duration of follow-up was 42 months. Conclusion: WLE with negative margins should be the initial surgery for PT. The role of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy is uncertain. PT is pathological enigma. Till date, no factors can accurately predict the recurrence and outcome. PT is known for unpredictable behavior and high recurrence rates, hence long-term follow-up is advised.
  8 3,886 321
Lymph node metastasis: A bearing on prognosis in squamous cell carcinoma
C Kapoor, S Vaidya, V Wadhwan, S Malik
July-September 2015, 52(3):417-424
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176750  PMID:26905157
Nodal status is a significant predictor for survival of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy, step sectioning of SLNs, and immunohistochemistry have changed the detection of tumor deposits in lymph nodes (LNs). The extent of LN metastasis is a major determinant for the staging and the prognosis of most human malignancies and often guides therapeutic decisions. Metastasis to regional lymph node (RLN) is a complex process. It is often associated with several clinical and pathological characteristics. The involvement of RLN is often, a harbinger for increased risk of metastasis. New knowledge in this area can enable the clinicians and pathologists to study and treat tumors in a more directed fashion. A molecular approach to factors that predicts the likelihood of RLN metastasis could eliminate the reoccurrence of the tumor in the form of “micrometastasis” and “skip” metastasis. The aim of this review is to discuss different modes of spread of metastasis in SCC.
  7 30,767 927
Epidemiology, diagnosis, surgical treatment and prognosis of the pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: Report of 125 patients from one single center
M Yang, B Tian, Y Zhang, A Su, P Yue, S Xu, L Wang
July-September 2015, 52(3):343-349
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176746  PMID:26905133
Objective: The objective of the following study is to summarize the epidemiology of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (p-NETs) in our single institution, analyze the diagnostic characteristics, share the experience of surgical treatments and discuss the prognostic factors. Methods: A retrospective collection and analysis of clinical data of 125 patients with p-NETs which were pathologically confirmed in our hospital from January 2002 to December 2012. Results: A total of 125 patients of which 52 were males and 73 were females. Totally 92 patients had functional p-NETs, while non-functional p-NETs were diagnosed in 33 patients. The most common operative procedures performed were local resection of pancreatic tumor (47.2%), followed by distal pancreatectomy (29.6%). Thirty patients (28%) had post-operative complications, the most common of which was pancreatic fistula (22.4%). The overall survival rate at 5 years was 68.4%. The 5-year survival rate for patients with functional tumors was 75.1%, compared with 50.0% for those with non-functional tumors (P = 0.021). The survival time of patients with R0 resection was statistically longer than that of patients with Not R0 resection (P < 0.005). In univariate analysis, the most powerful predictors of poor outcome were gender, age, tumor size, functional status, surgical margins, lymph node invasion and distant metastasis. However only surgical margin and distant metastasis were significant predictors in multivariate analysis (P = 0.001, 0.047, respectively). Conclusion: p-NETs are an uncommon and heterogeneous group of tumors, with a rising incidence. Surgery is the most effective treatment. Surgical margin and distant metastasis were the most significant prognostic factors. Radical resection should be taken more into considerations.
  7 2,791 322
Conventional cytology, visual tests and evaluation of P16INK4A as a biomarker in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
S Kava, S Rajaram, VK Arora, N Goel, S Aggarwal, S Mehta
July-September 2015, 52(3):270-275
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176729  PMID:26905107
Objectives: (1) To detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) using Papanicolaou test (PAP test), visual tests (visual inspection after the application of acetic acid [VIA], visual inspection after the application of Lugol's iodine [VILI]), colposcopy, and biopsy. (2) To study the biomarker p16INK4A expression by immunostaining. Materials And Methods: Experimental study was conducted from November 2009 to April 2011. 1500 women were screened for cancer cervix using conventional PAP test, VIA, and VILI. Sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of these tests were calculated individually, sequentially, and in parallel. Women having positive results underwent colposcopy and biopsy if required. p16INK4Aexpression in biopsy samples was studied using immunohistochemistry. Results: All test positive cases (n = 235) underwent colposcopy. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of PAP with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) as cut-off was 40%, 99.25%, 35.25%, and 99.39%; VIA was 60%, 93.06%, 8.03%, and 99.56% and VILI was 80%, 86.06%, 5.4%, and 99.76%, respectively. When PAP, VIA, and VILI were used in parallel sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV improved to 100%, 85.18%, 6.38%, and 100%, respectively. Colposcopic abnormalities were detected in 83 and biopsy proven CIN in 15. p16INK4A expression was seen in eight of 15 CIN cases. Conclusions:(1) PAP test and visual techniques are complementary. (2) p16INK4Aexpression was seen in majority of CIN 2 lesions suggesting a higher grade lesion.
  5 2,847 356
Breast reconstruction in low resource settings: Autologous latissimus dorsi flap provides a viable option
N Kaur, A Gupta, S Saini
July-September 2015, 52(3):291-295
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176701  PMID:26905114
Background: Breast reconstruction (BR) plays a significant role in the woman's physical, emotional and psychological recovery from breast cancer. However, the current most accepted methods of reconstruction are expensive, may require microsurgical skills and can be offered to a very small number of patients seeking treatment in tertiary care centers. For the large majority of women seeking treatment in public hospitals, solution lies in finding a method of reconstruction, which is autologous, produces a reasonable match to the contralateral breast in size, shape and symmetry and produces minimal donor site morbidity. It should also be a technique, which is cost effective and can withstand the effects of radiotherapy (RT). The autologous latissimus dorsi (LD) flap is one such versatile technique, which can serve as an ideal reconstructive option for the majority of patients. Materials And Methods: During a period of 6 years, 19 patients underwent immediate BR using this flap in the Department of General Surgery. Patients who were young (mean age 37.4 years), had small to medium sized breasts, with operable breast cancer (Stage II and IIIa) were selected for the procedure. Results: Satisfactory cosmetic results as rated by patients as well as surgeons were achieved in the majority. Donor site morbidities were seroma formation (78%) and donor site wound breakdown (21%). Post-operative RT was well-tolerated by the reconstructed breast. Conclusion: Autologous LD flap reconstruction is a safe and economical option for BR in low resource settings and is suitable for women with small and medium sized breasts.
  4 2,927 296
Eribulin mesylate in Indian patients: A single center experience
R Thippeswamy, S Patil, HP Shashidara, CT Satheesh, H Vittal, S Mishra
July-September 2015, 52(3):297-298
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176735  PMID:26905116
Background: Eribulin mesylate is the latest addition in the armamentarium of management of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) with a unique mechanism of action. Although the multicentric EMBRACE trial suggests significant overall survival benefit from this novel drug, its effectiveness in Indian population is yet to be evaluated. Materials And Methods: Presented here is a single center experience of eight patients who were administered eribulin for MBC. Patients had received a median of 3 prior chemotherapies before eribulin administration. The median dose of eribulin therapy was 5 cycles (range: 2–6 cycles). Results: The objective response rate was 75% (CR in one and PR in five out of eight patients). Response was seen across all subtypes of patients. Eribulin was well tolerated. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion: Eribulin conferred good response rates with satisfactory tolerability profile in Indian patients. Its use in earlier lines and in combination with other drugs may achieve deeper and longer responses.
  4 1,908 221
Simple multiplex RT-PCR for identifying common fusion BCR-ABL transcript types and evaluation of molecular response of the a2b2 and a2b3 transcripts to Imatinib resistance in north Indian chronic myeloid leukemia patients
Rashid Mir, I Ahmad, J Javid, M Zuberi, P Yadav, R Shazia, M Masroor, S Guru, PC Ray, N Gupta, A Saxena
July-September 2015, 52(3):314-318
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176741  PMID:26905124
Introduction: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is characterized by the Philadelphia chromosome, an abnormally shortened chromosome 22. It is the result of a reciprocal translocation of chromosomes 9 and 22, creating BCR-ABL fusion transcripts, b3a2, b2a2, and e1a2. The aim of our study was to determine the type of BCR-ABL fusion transcripts for molecular diagnosis and investigate the frequency of BCR-ABL fusion transcripts in CML patients by multiplex RT-PCR in CML. Materials And Methods: A single reaction with multiple primers multiplex PCR was used to detect and investigate the type and frequency in 200 CML patients among which 116, 33, and 51 were in CP, AP, and BC phase, respectively. RESULTS: The study included 200 CML patients, among whom breakpoints in b3a2, b2a2 transcripts were detected in 68% and 24%, respectively, while 8% of the patients showed both b3a2/b2a2. A statistically significant difference was seen between frequency of BCR-ABL fusion transcripts and gender (P = 0.03), molecular response (P = 0.04), and hematological response (P = 0.05). However, there was no correlation found between frequencies of BCR-/ABL fusion transcripts and other clinicopathological parameters like age, type of therapy, thrombocytopenia, and white blood cell count. Conclusion: Multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction is useful and saves time in the detection of BCR-ABL variants; the occurrence of these transcripts associated with CML can assist in prognosis and treatment of disease.
  4 5,297 453
Primary mammary rhabdomyosarcoma in a nineteen year old female: A case report and review of literature
AA Kallianpur, Praveen , NK Shukla, SVS Deo, P Khanna, P Durgapal
July-September 2015, 52(3):295-296
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176702  PMID:26905115
  3 1,777 141
Increased survival of patients with end-stage hepatocellular carcinoma due to intake of ONCOXIN®, a dietary supplement
M Al-Mahtab, SMF Akbar, MSI Khan, S Rahman
July-September 2015, 52(3):443-446
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176699  PMID:26905163
Background And Aims: Treatment and management of patients with end-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents a formidable challenge to contemporary branches of medical sciences. The study presented here was conducted to assess the utility of nutrient supplement, if any, for management of patients with end-stage HCC. Materials And Methods: A total of 19 patients with end-stage HCC (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer [BCLC] staging D) were provided with ONCOXIN® for 3 months. Another 10 patients with end-stage HCC (BCLC stage D) with similar clinical conditions received conservative management, but they did not give consent for taking ONCOXIN® (non-ONCOXIN® group). All patients of both groups were followed on regular basis until their death. Statistical Analysis: The results were expressed as mean and standard deviation. Comparison between groups was performed using Student's t-test or the Mann-Whitney U test. For categorical data, Chi-square or Fisher exact test was applied. Results: All patients of the control group (non-ONCOXIN® group) (10 of 10 patients) died within 2 months after study commencement. On the other hand, 10 of 19 patients receiving ONCOXIN® died within 2 months (less than 53% patients) after the start of taking ONCOXIN® (P < 0.05, compared with patients of non-ONCOXIN® group). Five more patients died within 5 months after the start of intake of ONCOXIN®. Four patients receiving ONCOXIN® survived for more than 6 months after study commencement. Conclusions: Although this is a preliminary report, it inspires considerable optimism about safety and efficacy of a food supplement for management of patients with end-stage HCC.
  3 2,384 252
Treatment of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer: Experience from a tertiary Indian cancer center
B Sirohi, S Dawood, S Rastogi, A Pandey, M Bal, N Shetty, SV Shrikhande
July-September 2015, 52(3):449-452
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176732  PMID:26905166
Background: The aim of this study was to look at the outcome of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer treated at a tertiary cancer center in India. Patients And Methods: A total of 101 patients with locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer diagnosed between May 2012 and July 2013 were identified from a prospectively maintained database at the tertiary cancer center. Overall survival (OS) was computed using the Kaplan–Meir product limit method and compared across groups using the log-rank statistics. Cox proportional hazards model, adjusted for a number of patient and tumor characteristics, was then used to determine factors prognostic for OS. Results: Median age at diagnosis was 55 years (range: 21–81 years). 57.4% (n = 58) of patients were male, 22% (n = 22) had performance status (PS) of <2 at diagnosis and 89% received first-line chemotherapy, while the rest received best supportive care. For the whole cohort, 6 month and 1-year OS was 57% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 46–66%) and 47% (95% CI: 35–57%), respectively. In a multivariable model, PS <2 and oligometastatic disease were associated with a significantly decreased risk of death. Conclusion: Results from our analysis indicate that the prognostic outcome among Indian patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer is poor with survival outcomes similar to those reported in North America and Europe.
  3 3,614 274
Gallbladder cancer incidence in Gwalior district of India: Five-year trend based on the registry of a regional cancer center
MA Barbhuiya, TD Singh, SS Poojary, S Gupta, M Kakkar, BR Shrivastav, PK Tiwari
July-September 2015, 52(3):430-437
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176736  PMID:26905160
Background: We have reported here the 5-year incidence (2004–2008) of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in North Central India along with its descriptive epidemiology. This provides potential clues for better prevention. The present study has also evaluated the association of ABO blood groups with GBC. Patients And Methods: The study comprised 742 GBC cases referred to the regional cancer hospital, Gwalior, during 2004–2008. The demographic statistics of Gwalior district was considered to calculate the relative risk and incidence rates. ABO blood group distribution amongst 90,000 healthy subjects registered in the local blood bank during 2002–2007 was taken as controls to study the association of blood groups with GBC. Results: The age-standardized total incidence rate of GBC was calculated to be 7.16/1,00,000. The relative risk of females getting GBC was 2.693 at 95% confidence interval of 2.304–3.151 (P < 0.0001). The females formed 69.5% of total cancer cases, with age-standardized incidence rate of 10/1,00,000. The mean age of male and female GBC cases was found to be 55.4 years (SD = 13, SE = 0.77) and 51.5 years (SD = 12.3, SE = 0.50), respectively. The blood groups A (P = 0.0022) and AB (P < 0.0001) had a positive association with GBC with significant level of differences in comparison to controls. Conclusion: Our study provided an estimate of a 5-year incidence of GBC in North Central India for the first time. With regard to the association of risk factors like obesity, age, and urban living with GBC, the findings of the present study are contradictory to the general opinion. Blood groups A and AB were found to be associated with GBC, which would be provisional for further investigations.
  3 3,891 281
Head and neck cancer in geriatric patients: Analysis of the pattern of care given at a tertiary cancer care center
S Thiagarajan, TPS Babu, S Chakraborthy, VM Patil, A Bhattacharjee, S Balasubramanian
July-September 2015, 52(3):387-390
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176734  PMID:26905147
Background And Aim: The percentage of elderly people with head and neck cancers (HNC) is on the rise. This makes HNC in this group of patients an important issue for healthcare providers. The present study was planned to analyze the patterns of care given to the geriatric patients and to identify the factors influencing the decision making process. Materials And Methods: Data of all the elderly patients (≥65 years) registered in the year 2012, with histologically proven HNC (all sites, stages, histopathological types, except lymphoma, sarcoma and cervical metastasis of unknown origin) receiving treatment (definitive/palliative) were collected. Results: A total of 270 patients were included in this study. The median age was 72 years (range: 65–101), with predominant male population (70%, n = 190). Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was the most common cancer (57%, n = 154). Eastern Co-Operative Oncology Group performance status (PS) of 0–2 was seen in 91% of the patients. Co-morbidities were present in 139 (51.5%) patients. 50% (n = 134) of the patients received palliative intent treatment, 45% (n = 123) definitive treatment, whereas in 5% (n = 13) the intent was not mentioned. Age, a clinical stage and PS significantly influenced the decision making on the intent of treatment. 208 (77%) patients completed their treatment irrespective of the intent. Age was the only factor influencing treatment completion irrespective of the intent. Conclusion: Geriatric HNC patients frequently present with advanced disease, having multiple co-morbidities. Hence, a multidisciplinary team management of these patients is essential, also taking into account of the social and financial support available to these patients.
  3 2,643 317
A case of metastatic infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma with initial metastases to the optic nerve and subsequent extra ocular muscle involvement
V Sharma, R Bhardwaj, KP Chaudhary, ML Pandey, S Sharma
July-September 2015, 52(3):275-276
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176757  PMID:26905108
  2 1,601 167
Squamous cell carcinoma arising in an epidermal cyst
HB Sridevi, MH Shariff, K Pushpalatha Pai
July-September 2015, 52(3):335-336
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176714  PMID:26905131
  2 2,209 171
Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas: A retrospective analysis of 36 cases from a single institution in India
P Singh, K Patel, B Ramakrishna
July-September 2015, 52(3):439-442
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176727  PMID:26905162
Background: Solid pseudopapillary tumor (SPT) of the pancreas is uncommon, occurring predominantly in young women. We analyzed the clinicopathological features of SPT diagnosed in our institution. Materials And Methods: A retrospective analysis of all cases of SPT diagnosed in the Department of Pathology from January 2001 to September 2012, utilizing an electronic database search, was carried out. In all, 36 cases (35 resections and 1 fine needle aspiration cytology with cell block material) were found. All these cases were then analyzed for clinical presentation, duration and histopathological features, including immunohistochemistry and correlated with the clinical outcome. Results: The mean age of patients (31 females) was 24.1 years. The SPT was suspected preoperatively in 25% of cases. Tumor location was equally common in head (15), body (9), tail (8), distal body and tail (3), and neck (1). Thirty five patients underwent resection. The mean tumor size was 7.16 cm. Grossly, the tumors were solid and cystic (22), predominantly solid (11) or entirely cystic (2). Histologically, pseudopapillary structures, cholesterol clefts, hemorrhage, necrosis, and foam cells were commonly seen. Infiltration into the adjacent pancreas or capsule and perineural invasion were seen in some cases. Immunostaining for CD 10, CD56, and vimentin were positive. Chromogranin and cytokeratin were negative. Follow up in 20 patients from 2-82 months did not show evidence of recurrence or metastasis, even in those with limited surgery or minimal parenchymal or focal perineural infiltration. Conclusion: This study suggests that a management approach with only limited complete tumor resection would be adequate in these tumors.
  2 2,826 346
Evaluation of stapled closure following laryngectomy for carcinoma larynx in an Indian tertiary cancer centre
S Babu, BT Varghese, EM Iype, PS George, P Sebastian
July-September 2015, 52(3):376-380
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176728  PMID:26905144
Background And Aim: Stapling devices are used for pharyngeal closure after laryngectomy for the past few decades although it has not gained wide acceptance. This study is aimed at evaluating the role of stapler in pharyngeal closure after laryngectomy. Methods: Thirty consecutive patients who underwent stapled laryngectomy at our institution from October 2004 to February 2008 were evaluated retrospectively. Linear stapler (Proximate TX 60; Ethicon Inc.) was used for closure of neopharynx. Results: There were 28 males and 2 females with mean age of 54.5 years (54.5 ± 11.2). Nineteen of these patients (63.3%) had salvage laryngectomy and two patients (6.7%) had laryngectomy for a second primary tumor. Twenty-eight patients had total laryngectomy (TL), whereas two had extended TL. Eight patients had salivary leak (26.7%). Of these, 6 (75%) had prior radiation. All salivary leaks except one were managed conservatively. Follow-up ranged from 7 to 54 months (median: 21 months). Seven patients (23.3%) developed recurrence, six at the stoma, of which 5 (83.3%) had initial extension of disease to the subglottis. Four-year disease-free survival was 54.4%. Conclusion: Pharyngeal closure by linear stapler is an efficient and safe method of fashioning the neopharynx after laryngectomy with no added risk of occurrence of pharyngocutaneous fistula in primary and salvage laryngectomies.
  2 2,424 272
Dual surrogate markers for rapid prediction of epidermal growth factor receptor mutation status in advanced adenocarcinoma of the lung: A novel approach in resource-limited setting
KS Udupa, R Rajendranath, TG Sagar, S Sundersingh, T Joseph
July-September 2015, 52(3):266-268
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176693  PMID:26905105
Introduction: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have revolutionized the treatment of metastatic lung cancer in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. Amplified refractory mutation system (ARMS)-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the current standard for detecting EGFR mutation status is time-consuming and highly expensive. Consequently any surrogate test which are cheaper, faster and as accurate as the PCR method will help in early diagnosis and management of patients with lung cancer, especially in resource-limited settings. Materials and Methods: Eighty-five patients, all of South Indian origin, with adenocarcinoma of lung, registered between October 2009 and January 2013, were evaluated for EGFR mutation status by using scorpion probe based ARMS RT-PCR method. Immunohistochemical (IHC) was performed using the phosphorylated AKT (P-AKT) and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) on above patient's sample, and the results were compared with EGFR mutation tests. Results: EGFR mutation was positive in 34 of 85 patients (40%). P-AKT and TTF-1 were positive in 50 (58.8%) and 68 (80%) patients respectively. Both P-AKT and TTF-1 had statistically significant correlation with EGFR mutation status. Positive and negative predictive value of P-AKT in diagnosing EGFR mutation was 58% and 85.5% and that for TTF-1 was 48.5% and 94.1%, respectively. The problem of low positive predictive value can partly be overcome by testing P-AKT and TTF-1 simultaneously. Conclusion: P-AKT and TTF-1 using IHC had statistically significant correlation with EGFR mutation with high negative predictive value. In the case of urgency of starting treatment, EGFR mutation testing may be avoided in those patients who are negative for these IHC markers and can be started on chemotherapy.
  2 1,915 287
Regorafenib: A novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor: A brief review of its therapeutic potential in the treatment of metastatic colorectal carcinoma and advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors
P Thangaraju, H Singh, A Chakrabarti
July-September 2015, 52(3):257-260
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176690  PMID:26905101
Regorafenib is a novel oral multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor having both antitumor and anti-angiogenic activities. Regorafenib was recently approved by US Food and Drug Administration in February 25, 2013 in the treatment for patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor and for the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma after disease progression or intolerance to imatinib mesylate and sunitinib therapy. Oral regorafenib demonstrates a high level of efficacy with acceptable tolerability with the 160 mg daily for 3 weeks followed by 1 week off schedule; a continuous schedule could be of interest. Hypertension, mucositis, hand foot skin reaction, diarrhea and asthenia are the most common side-effects. Regardless of these encouraging results, studies investigating, adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings are awaited, as well as trials using regorafenib in combination with chemotherapy or other targeted therapies. Clinical trials investigating regorafenib in other tumor types are ongoing.
  2 2,985 508
Leiomyosarcoma of penis
KH Khobragade, AS Tamhankar, GK Bakshi, HB Tongaonkar, S Menon
July-September 2015, 52(3):374-375
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176719  PMID:26905143
  1 1,863 160
Intra-abdominal cystic lymphangioma in an adult female masquerading ovarian tumor
Sankappa P Sinhasan, KR Nagesha
July-September 2015, 52(3):380-381
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176730  PMID:26905145
  1 2,457 186
18F-FDG positron emission tomography scan findings in a case of rituximab-CHOP-induced pneumonitis
N Saini, V Saini, V Kumar, A Bhatia, S Qazi
July-September 2015, 52(3):437-438
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176738  PMID:26905161
  1 1,670 210
Esophageal stent placement for acute intra-thoracic anastomotic leak after esophagectomy
AK Giri, KK Bassi, Vaibhav K Gupta, BP Singh, SW Abraham, KK Pandey
July-September 2015, 52(3):307-308
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176706  PMID:26905121
  1 1,637 171
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumorin neurofibromatosis type I: Unusual presentation as mesenteric mass
S Venkatachala, S Rajeshkumar, S Premkumar, R Puroshothaman
July-September 2015, 52(3):318-319
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176710  PMID:26905125
  1 1,359 153
Oxaliplatin induced acute tubular necrosis
A Jain, B Dubashi, S Parameswaran, RN Ganesh
July-September 2015, 52(3):363-364
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176696  PMID:26905139
  1 1,734 197
Isolated Richter's transformation of brain parenchyma: Remission with DeAngelis protocol
A Gogia, N Iqbal, MC Sharma, V Raina
July-September 2015, 52(3):329-330
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176695  PMID:26905129
  1 1,362 142
Role of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer
M Akhtar, V Akulwar, A Kulkarni, A Bansal
July-September 2015, 52(3):286-289
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176755  PMID:26905112
Background And Aims: Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) is common in developing countries. The advancement of disease leads to decreased probability of radical cure and increase in treatment cost. The study evaluated neo adjuvant chemotherapy with MRM and MRM followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and also the effectiveness of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in down staging advanced disease and offering radical cure. Settings And Design: A rural hospital-based prospective comparative study. Materials And Methods: All histologically proven and investigated LABC (T3 N0, T3N1, Any T4, Any N2/N3, M0) were selected as subjects and divided into two groups. One group received neo adjuvant chemotherapy (5 fluorouracil, adriamycin and cyclophosphamide) followed by modified radical mastectomy and other group received adjuvant chemotherapy after modified radical mastectomy. Both groups were compared for disease free survival, overall survival and post-operative complications. Tumor response to chemotherapy in neo adjuvant group was also studied. Statistical Analysis: All continuous variables were analyzed using student's' test and categorical variable by Fischer exact test. Results: Thirty one patients were enrolled, of these 16 patients received neo adjuvant chemotherapy. Clinical complete response was observed in two patients (12.5%). Clinical partial response was found in 12 patients (75%) and no response was seen in two patients (12.5%). Disease free survival and overall survival was 82% in neo adjuvant group while in adjuvant group disease free survival was 75% and overall survival was 83%. Post operative complications were similar in both groups. Conclusion: Neo adjuvant chemotherapy helps in down staging LABC and offers opportunity in vivo to assess the effect of chemotherapy on individual basis. There was no significant difference in disease free survival, overall survival and post operative complication in between two groups.
  1 3,177 351
Treatment-associated severe thrombocytopenia affects survival rate in esophageal cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy
YM Huang, CH Wang, JS Huang, CS Tsai, KY Yeh, YJ Lan, TH Wu, PH Chang, YS Chang, CH Lai
July-September 2015, 52(3):454-460
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176708  PMID:26905168
Background: Esophageal cancer is commonly treated with surgery, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), or a combination of both. The correlation between the hematological parameters during CCRT and early survival of esophageal cancer has not been fully evaluated. Materials And Methods: We analyzed the records of 65 esophageal cancer patients treated by CCRT between 2007 and 2010 retrospectively. The association between CCRT-associated myelosuppression, demographic variables, and survival rates were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The univariate analysis showed that tumor extent of T3-4, a higher stage of tumor, a lower albumin level, grade 3 or higher anemia and thrombocytopenia, and interruptions in treatment affected survival rates. Further, the multivariate analysis revealed that stage IV (P = 0.030) is an independently negative prognostic factor for a one-year survival rate. Stage IV (P = 0.035), tumor extent of T3-4 (P = 0.002), and grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia (P = 0.015) are independently negative prognostic factors for a two-year survival rate. Conclusions: Severe decrease in platelet count during CCRT independently affects survival of esophageal cancer patients in addition to stage of the tumor.
  1 2,223 237
Adrenal tumors: An experience of 10 years in a single surgical unit
S Khanna, R Priya, SK Bhartiya, S Basu, VK Shukla
July-September 2015, 52(3):475-478
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176749  PMID:26905175
Introduction: Most of the adrenal masses are discovered incidentally by imaging techniques for reasons unrelated to adrenal diseases. Treatment is based on various factors such as, nature of adrenal mass, age of presentation, size of tumor, and the functional status of tumor. We report a series of 14 consecutive cases of adrenal tumors treated in a single surgical unit in our hospital. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical profile and outcome of treatment of adrenal tumors treated in a surgical unit. Materials And Methods: It is a retrospective study data of 14 cases of adrenal tumors treated in a single surgical unit in University Hospital over 10 years have been analyzed. Various parameters such as gender, age, size of tumor, functional status, histopathology, type of management, and outcome have been reviewed. Results: A total of 14 patients with adrenal masses were seen over a 10 year period (1997-2006). All were referred cases, either from endocrinology or medicine wards. There were seven female and seven male patients. Mean age of patients was 48.6 years (range 14-60 years). Mean size of tumor was 8.0 cm (5.9 cm for benign tumors and 9.7 cm for malignant tumors). There were six cases of adrenal carcinoma, four cases of adrenal myelolipoma, two cases of pheochromocytoma, and one each case of adrenal hyperplasia and histoplasmosis. There were only two functional tumors. All, except two malignant cases were treated operatively. A total of 5 year survival was 100% in benign cases and 27% in malignant tumors. Conclusion: Adrenal tumors need to be assessed for their functional status and malignant potential prior to treatment. Surgical excision is usually curative for benign lesion. Among malignant tumors the benefits of surgery depend on local extent and metastatic status of tumors.
  1 3,472 281
Neuropathic pain in cancer patients: A brief review
V Loomba, H Kaveeshvar, A Upadhyay, N Sibai
July-September 2015, 52(3):425-428
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176758  PMID:26905158
Neuropathic pain (NP) is initiated or caused by a primary lesion or dysfunction in the nervous system. The NP in cancer patients is typically due to a combination of inflammatory, neuropathic, ischemic, infiltrative, and compression mechanisms that involve one or more anatomic sites. These patients will often have various types of co-existing pain syndromes and co-morbidities. Thus, any treatment plan needs to be individualized. After a thorough clinical assessment and evaluation, a combination therapy including anticonvulsants, antidepressants, N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists, opiates, topical agents, and interventional procedures should be considered in these patients.
  1 3,169 390
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgery versus surgery alone in resectable esophageal cancer
K Bushan, S Sharma
July-September 2015, 52(3):413-416
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176743  PMID:26905156
The aim of this article is to review randomized and non-randomized trials and meta-analysis comparing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) plus surgery versus surgery alone in resectable esophageal cancers. The article examines the value of NAC as a standard of care in the era of multimodality treatment with availability of different therapeutic options. The emphasis is on assessment of benefit of NAC in terms of survival (long and short term) rate of RO resection in resectable esophageal cancers of any histopathologic type. The in-hospital post-operative morbidity and mortality in NAC group, chemotherapeutic drug regimens and their response rates and optimal number of cycles to be used will also be addressed
  1 2,288 271
Stromal characterization and comparison of odontogenic cysts and odontogenic tumors using picrosirius red stain and polarizing microscopy: A retrospective and histochemical study
PB Jahagirdar, AD Kale, S Hallikerimath
July-September 2015, 52(3):408-412
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176742  PMID:26905155
Introduction: Odontogenic lesions represent a range of conditions, the features of which probably depend on the stage of induction towards tooth formation reached prior to neoplastic or hamartomatous proliferation. It has been also suggested that inductive changes may allow progression from one type of odontogenic tumor to another. The epithelium also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of these lesions; even stroma is likely to play an equally important role in the pathogenesis and biological behavior. So, this study was performed to investigate, compare, and correlate different types of collagen fibers in odontogenic cysts and odontogenic tumors. Materials And Methods: Thirty each pre-diagnosed odontogenic cysts and tumors were histochemically analyzed using a special stain (Picrosirius red stain) and polarizing microscopy. Results: Seven cases (99%) of inflammatory cysts exhibited predominantly greenish-yellow birefringence indicating procollagen, intermediate, or pathologic collagen fibers suggestive of loosely packed collagen fibers. Predominant yellowish-orange birefringence exhibited by 21 cases (99%) of developmental cysts was comparable to the yellowish-orange and orangish-red to red birefringence exhibited by odontogenic tumors suggesting tightly packed fibers. Conclusions: The Picrosirius red stain in conjunction with polarizing microscopy serves as a specific and sensitive tool in characterizing collagen fibers in odontogenic cysts and odontogenic tumor.
  1 2,583 272
Evaluation of salivary function by sialoscintigraphy in locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer patients after intensity modulated radiotherapy
TL Chuang, YF Wang, CH Tsai, JE Chiu, MS Lee, WY Chiou, HY Lin, WT Tsai, SK Hung
July-September 2015, 52(3):398-401
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176733  PMID:26905151
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the salivary gland function changes by sialoscintigraphy in locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) after intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Materials And Methods: Salivary function was assessed by sialoscintigraphy. Quantitative sialoscintigraphy was performed in 24 NPC patients prior to and after IMRT. Results were categorized in four groups according to the duration of treatment. The sialoscintigraphy parameters were examined. Results: Sialoscintigraphy showed a significant difference in the secretion of each interval groups. The parameters of scintigraphy, except maximum accumulation (MA) of submandibular glands, decreased first after radiotherapy, and then recovered. However, the MA of submandibular glands was continuously downhill after radiation. Conclusions: The sialoscintigraphy parameters of each gland changed with the different radiation dose and follow-up intervals. The salivary function was influenced after radiotherapy in locally advanced NPC, especially, in the submandibular gland. Strategies to improve the salivary function should be assessed.
  1 2,067 213
Clinico-hematological profile and outcome of acute promyelocytic leukemia patients at a tertiary care center in North India
A Dayama, J Dass, T Seth, M Mahapatra, PC Mishra, R Saxena
July-September 2015, 52(3):309-312
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176731  PMID:26905122
Objectives: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is the only acute leukemia amenable to targeted therapy. However, there is limited Indian data on APL. We aimed to analyze data of APL patients treated with all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and anthracycline based chemotherapy. Materials And Methods: A total of 34 cases of APL were treated at our center over 4 years. Induction chemotherapy consisted of a combination of ATRA and daunorubicin. Results: Most of our patients were intermediate risk (50%) followed by high risk (41.17%). Induction mortality was 14.7%. We observed a high incidence of febrile neutropenia (91%) and 50% of our patients developed ATRA syndrome. Four patients (11.76%) relapsed during follow-up (median - 15 months, range: 13-33 months). There was no correlation between risk status and death or relapse or ATRA syndrome. Median event free survival (EFS) duration was not reached however mean duration was 38.45 ± 3.84 months. Median overall survival (OS) duration was also not reached at 53 months of follow-up. The 4 year OS and EFS were 75.45% and 64.5% respectively. On multivariate analysis, only disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) significantly correlated with a poor OS and EFS. Discussion: Our data reflects that APL remains a highly curable malignancy with good response to ATRA plus anthracycline based chemotherapy even with a greater number of high and intermediate risk patients. Only DIC during induction chemotherapy bore an impact on survival in our patients.
  1 2,309 274
Sunitinib in patients with imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumor: A single center experiencep-190 chronic myelogenous leukemia presenting as extramedullary blast crisis
A Sahu, S Godbole, P Jain, J Ghosh, S Shrikhande, M Ramadwar, M Goyal, S Gulia, J Bajpai, Y Kembhavi, S Gupta
July-September 2015, 52(3):320-323
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176747  PMID:26905126
Aim: The outcome of patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) has improved with the use of imatinib. Despite high response rates with this drug resistance eventually develops in nearly all patients. We present an analysis of prospectively collected data on sunitinib efficacy and safety in patients with imatinib-resistant GIST. Subjects And Methods: Between November 2006 and October 2007, patients with GIST were accrued in an approved sunitinib patient access protocol. Key eligibility criteria included tumor resistance to imatinib and/or patient intolerance to this drug. Patients received sunitinib at a starting dose of 50 mg once daily for 4 weeks in a 6 week cycle, with standardized dose modification titrated to toxicity. Patients were continued on sunitinib until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The endpoints were safety, overall survival (OS) and objective response rate (ORR). Results: Fifteen patients, all of whom had imatinib resistance and none intolerance, with median age of 48 (26–69) years, were treated on the protocol. The most common sites of primary disease were small intestine (40%), stomach (26.7%) and retroperitoneal (26.7%). A median of 10 (1–47) cycles of sunitinib were delivered, 9 (60%) patients required dose reductions due to toxicity whereas dose delay of > 2 weeks was required in only one (6.7%) patient. There were no toxicity-related drug discontinuations. Hypothyroidism (n = 4; 26.7%) and hand-foot syndrome (n = 3; 20%) were the most common toxicities. There were no complete and 4 (26.7%) partial responses while prolonged disease stability was seen in 8 (53.3%) patients. At a median follow-up of 81 months in surviving patients, the median progression-free and overall survivals were 15.5 and 18.7 months, respectively. Conclusions: Sunitinib appears to be an effective and well-tolerated treatment for Indian patients with imatinib-resistant GIST with outcomes similar to that reported previously. Adverse effects can be reasonably well managed using a dose modification strategy.
  1 1,973 252
Evaluation of biologic potential and risk stratification for predicting disease-free survival after resection of primary gastrointestinal stromal tumor: A multivariate clinicopathological study
M Vij, V Agrawal, A Kumar, R Pandey
July-September 2015, 52(3):351-357
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176689  PMID:26905135
Background And Objectives: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract, which express CD117, a c-kit proto-oncogene protein and show gain of function mutation of c-kit gene. Apart from the presence of metastasis, the criteria to differentiate benign and malignant GISTs are not well-defined. Although a variety of prognostic factors have been investigated, no method has yet proven sufficient to enable reliable determination of malignancy in all cases. This study was planned to risk stratify the GIST cases with respect to the various clinicopathological features and to identify prognostic factors in GIST. Materials And Methods: n histological and immunohistochemical analysis, 121 cases of GIST were identified. MIB-1 (Ki-67) labeling index (LI) was performed in 60 cases. Follow-up data was available for 93 patients. A P < 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Larger tumor size, high mitotic activity and Ki-67 LI of >10% were identified as significant predictors of disease-free survival in univariate analysis (P < 0.0001). Other factors of statistically significant value were a high cellularity (P < 0.0027), nuclear pleomorphism (P = 0.0002), epithelioid cell type (P = 0.0098), presence of tumor necrosis (P < 0.01), presence of skeinoid fibers (P = 0.042), S-100 negativity (P = 0.025). Extra-gastrointestinal GIST and metastasis were more frequently associated with progressive disease (PD) as compared with GIST (P < 0.0004), (P < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis size (P = 0.0025), Ki-67 labeling index (P = 0.0186) and mitotic count (P = 0.0375) emerged as independent prognostic predictors of PD. Conclusion: This study suggests that GIST in Asian population may have a different phenotype with some predilection to nodal metastasis. Of all the features studied, tumor size and mitotic index are the best prognosticators in GIST with the addition of Ki-67 LI, wherever available.
  1 2,212 260
Everolimus plus octreotide long-acting repeatable in advanced neuroendocrine tumors in the routine tertiary cancer care setting: An Indian experience
R Tippeswamy, S Patil, CT Sateesh, HP Shashidhara, S Prabhudesai, P Prashanth, KM Haridas
July-September 2015, 52(3):359-362
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176709  PMID:26905137
Background: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare, heterogeneous, indolent tumors that are relatively insensitive to systemic chemotherapy. Therapeutic strategies for NETs broadly include somatostatin analogs, antiangiogenic therapy, and most recently, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition. Combination therapy has shown promising antitumor activity and good tolerability in the randomized phase III trials. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Everolimus plus Octreotide long-acting repeatable (LAR) in patients with advanced NETs in the routine tertiary cancer care setting in India in this postapproval, noninterventional trial. Patients And Methods: Patients presenting to selected centers between 2011 and 2013 with histologically confirmed low-, intermediate- or high-grade advanced NETs who may have had prior exposure to cytotoxic chemotherapy (≤2 lines) were treated with oral Everolimus (10 mg/day) plus intramuscular Octreotide LAR (30 mg once every 28 days) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity was seen. Patients were evaluated every 3 months for a response to therapy as per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Results: Everolimus plus Octreotide LAR was associated with a clinical benefit rate of 69% (best evaluable responses: Stable disease [SD] in 10 patients [63%], partial response in 1 patient [6%]). The average duration of therapy was 4.8 cycles, and 3 (17%) patients continued therapy for ≥12 cycles (all achieved SD). The therapy was found to be well-tolerated in all patients. Conclusions: Everolimus plus Octreotide LAR appears to be safe and efficacious in patients with advanced NETs who may have had prior exposure to chemotherapy – a finding consistent with recently conducted major trials.
  1 2,078 245
Primary chondrosarcoma in the young
BN Gayathri, TN Suresh, ML Harendra Kumar, HS Arun
July-September 2015, 52(3):260-261
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176753  PMID:26905102
  - 1,971 159
Advanced prostate cancer presenting as bilateral testicular hydrocele
S Gupta, A Mehta, J Kaur
July-September 2015, 52(3):264-265
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176754  PMID:26905104
  - 5,361 166
Successful treatment of a dual malignancy
MSH Zafar, R Kaur, P Pankaj, M Bhargava, S Aggarwal
July-September 2015, 52(3):268-269
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176759  PMID:26905106
  - 1,509 198
p-190 chronic myelogenous leukemia presenting as extramedullary blast crisis
S Langer, S Sharma, R Kapoor, K Subbarao, S Sazawal, R Saxena
July-September 2015, 52(3):323-324
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176712  PMID:26905127
  - 1,508 166
Late recurrence in a case of vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma unrelated to transplacental diethylstilbestrol exposure
K Khan, S Chakraborty, A Bandyopadhyay
July-September 2015, 52(3):312-313
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176707  PMID:26905123
  - 1,446 161
Symptomatic Cytomegalovirus reactivation related to chemoradiotherapy for adenocarcinoma of lower third esophagus and gastro-esophageal junction cancer
SV Ishi, A Joshi, V Noronha, K Prabhash
July-September 2015, 52(3):280-281
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176920  PMID:26905110
  - 1,366 174
N Gangwar, R Balakrishnan, P Pujary, L Rao, R Kudva
July-September 2015, 52(3):289-290
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176688  PMID:26905113
  - 1,618 219
Fatal glioblastoma multiforme in a child with neurofibromatosis type 1
F Incecik, MO Ozlem Hergüner, I Bayram, S Zorludemir, S Altunbasak
July-September 2015, 52(3):298-299
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176704  PMID:26905117
  - 1,779 260
A rare case of tracheoesophageal puncture with party wall necrosis
JR Anam, S Kannan, DA Chaukar, AK D’cruz
July-September 2015, 52(3):303-304
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176705  PMID:26905119
  - 1,432 163
Metastatic malignant melanoma in a young adult with unknown primary
AS Shenoy, HM Desai, VS Kavishwar, HV Savant
July-September 2015, 52(3):446-447
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176748  PMID:26905164
  - 1,679 174
Aggressive primary malignant myoepithelioma of the maxillary sinus
AH Hakeem, IH Hakeem
July-September 2015, 52(3):447-448
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176739  PMID:26905165
  - 1,449 160
Infantile myofibromatosis of uterus: A case report
MA Bhatkule, MS Dhawle, NR Kumbhakarna, RS Bindu
July-September 2015, 52(3):452-453
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176725  PMID:26905167
  - 1,382 170
Secondary pancreatic involvement by precursor T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting as acute pancreatitis
YK Yadav, V Mallya, C Ahluwalia, O Gupta
July-September 2015, 52(3):465-467
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176691  PMID:26905170
  - 1,490 146
Mixed germ cell tumor in a teenager: A rare entity
CR Choudhury, N Bhattacharya, TD Bhutia, M Mondal
July-September 2015, 52(3):470-472
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176697  PMID:26905172
  - 1,516 155
Occurrence of precancerous lesion in the post nuclear crisis condition
V Wiwanitkit
July-September 2015, 52(3):472-473
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176726  PMID:26905173
  - 1,189 118
Bladder cancer presenting with spontaneous subcapsular urinoma of kidney
NK Goyal, A Goel, V Singh, SN Sankhwar
July-September 2015, 52(3):473-474
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176744  PMID:26905174
  - 1,635 144
Prolonged survival of a patient with inoperable, locally advanced adenocarcinoma of pancreas after autologous immune enhancement therapy with chemotherapy
S Baskar, VD Dedeepiya, H Terunuma, SR Manjunath, R Senthilkumar, G Sivaraman, A Pandian, SJK Abraham
July-September 2015, 52(3):395-396
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176721  PMID:26905149
  - 2,215 190
Solitary fibrous tumor of orbit: A rare entity
T Rahman, K Ahmed, J Sarmah, A Das
July-September 2015, 52(3):396-397
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176687  PMID:26905150
  - 1,803 184
An unusual case of squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa with distant metastases
G Kaur, P Bakshi, SP Gupta, K Verma
July-September 2015, 52(3):401-402
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176745  PMID:26905152
  - 1,735 164
Rehabilitative management of segmental mandibulectomy patient
R Vivek, A Singh, TP Chaturvedi
July-September 2015, 52(3):405-407
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176703  PMID:26905154
  - 2,224 183
A rare case of extramedullary plasmacytoma arising from posterior mediastinum
D Gupta, J Goyal
July-September 2015, 52(3):428-429
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176717  PMID:26905159
  - 1,595 165
Spindle cell hemangioma of thyroid
BJ Sapariya, PR Udhreja
July-September 2015, 52(3):349-350
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176716  PMID:26905134
  - 1,575 174
Granulomatous mastitis and angiosarcoma of the breast masquerading as non-mass enhancement
R Subhash, M Abhishek, S Tanuja, HT Meenakshi
July-September 2015, 52(3):357-358
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176723  PMID:26905136
  - 1,631 222
Brain metastasis from carcinoma base of tongue after 9 years of disease free survival
Jyoti Poddar, J Maitrik Mehta, JP Neema, H Dhaval Jetley
July-September 2015, 52(3):362-363
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176740  PMID:26905138
  - 2,486 156
Chemotherapy for obstructive atelectasis in nonsmall cell lung cancer: Is this a treatment option?
V Naronha, R Pinninti, A Joshi, K Prabhash
July-September 2015, 52(3):368-369
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176756  PMID:26905141
  - 1,435 141
A clinical study to assess the pathological involvement of occult supraclavicular lymphnode metastasis in case of locally advanced operable breast carcinoma
SJ Virani, S Patni, R Shah
July-September 2015, 52(3):282-285
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176711  PMID:26905111
Purpose: The prognosis of ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph node (SCLN) recurrence after early breast cancer appears to be worse than for other locoregional recurrences, but better than for distant metastases. Prophylactic radiotherapy (RT) to supraclavicular region decreases risk of ipsilateral SCLN recurrence. Currently, all patients with locally advanced breast cancer are considered high-risk for SCLN metastasis and treated with prophylactic RT. This study is carried out to identify risk factors associated with occult SCLN metastases in locally advanced breast cancer. Materials And Methods: Total 48 female patients of all ages presenting with locally advanced carcinoma of breast who were operable by protocol criteria were included in the study. All the patients underwent modified radical mastectomy with supraclavicular lymphnode dissection. The resected specimen was processed for the histopathological analysis. Results: Occult SCLN metastases are found in 25% (12/48) of the patients in this study. Eleven factors were identified and analyzed to know whether or not they are associated with SCLN metastasis. Of those only pathological N stage (7% for <pN3 vs and 52% for pN3 stage) and level axillary nodal involvement (7% for patients without Level III involvement and 52% for with Level III involvement) are significantly associated with high-risk for occult supraclavicular lymphnode metastasis. Other factors such as age, menopausal status, T stage, pathologic grade, lymphovascular invasion, extracapsular extension, hormone receptor, and Her2 neu receptor status are not associated with risk for SCLN metastasis. Conclusion: Our study has shown that only high axillary disease burden in terms of more than 10 node positivity or more than 75% positive node out of total dissected nodes is associated with occult supraclavicular lymphnode metastasis breast cancer.
  - 2,402 288
Population pharmacokinetic analysis to identify the possibility of interaction between anti-cancer agents
J Subramanian, A Damre, S Rohatagi
July-September 2015, 52(3):461-465
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176692  PMID:26905169
Background: A number of molecularly targeted agents in oncology are tested in clinical studies in combination with conventional chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. There is the possibility that the pharmacokinetics and dynamics of these targeted agents may be different when administered alone as against when administered in combination with other agents. AIM: The aim of this study is to understand the effects of addition of combination agents on the pharmacokinetics of a new, investigational, cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor anti-cancer drug (Compound A) using population pharmacokinetic (pop-PK) analysis. Materials And Methods: Integrated pop-PK analysis of data obtained from multiple phase I/II studies of Compound A, given alone or in combination with other agents. Results: A two compartmental model was found suitable to explain the pharmacokinetics of Compound A. No statistically significant influence of patient covariates or combination agents on the pharmacokinetic parameters of the central compartment was detected up to a significance level of 0.01. Model evaluation showed that the parameter estimates are stable and that the variability in the data was well reproduced by the model. Conclusions: This study represents the first time that a pop-PK analysis was performed in India for a targeted anti-cancer agent being developed in India. Such an analysis is useful to not only understand the influence of patient covariates and combination agents on the pharmacokinetics of a new investigational agent, but would also be valuable in the simulation of later phase clinical trials for the agent under development.
  - 1,953 203
Spontaneous adverse drug reaction monitoring in oncology: Our experience
K Kaur, M Sood, S Bhagat, T Singh, M Jain, D Arora, JS Sekhon, S Kaushal
July-September 2015, 52(3):467-470
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176713  PMID:26905171
Background: Adverse drug reaction (ADR) monitoring is slowly developing as an important aspect of healthcare. The aim of the study was to study the pattern of adverse drug reactions in the Oncology department of a tertiary care hospital. Materials And Methods: This was a prospective study conducted in the Oncology department of a tertiary care hospital in which ADRs were reported spontaneously. The ADRs were noted from 1st January, 2007 to 30th June, 2011. Following were noted: demographics, premedication (if any), diagnosis, chemotherapy (regimen, cycles), medication history, and alteration in the treatment or co morbidities, ADRs (severity and management). Adverse drug reactions were noted by patient interview, collaborating with information on file, recording changes in the prescribing chart and investigations, consulting the doctor on duty. Results: During this study period, there were total of 14,475 visits of patients from which 2500 ADRs were recorded. Maximum number of ADRs were noted with platinum compounds (25.52%) followed by pyrimidine antagonists (19.88%). The most common malignancy reported in our hospital was Carcinoma breast (20%) followed by leukemia (12%) and Ca ovary (12%). Alopecia (27.76%) was the most common ADR followed by anemia (7.48%), thrombocytopenia (6.96%) and constipation (6.16%). Conclusion: Alopecia is the most common ADR and platinum compounds were responsible for the maximum number of ADRs. The most common carcinoma reported during this period was carcinoma breast.
  - 2,941 344
Pre-surgical road map for thyroid cancer and large goiters: Practical benefits of detailed radiological evaluation by surgeon
Ramakanth Bhargav Panchangam, Satyam Guntupalli, Thotakura Seetharamaiah, Uday Shamrao Kumbhar
July-September 2015, 52(3):382-386
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176751  PMID:26905146
Introduction: Pre-surgical radiological evaluation of neck is often mandatory for surgical planning in high risk thyroid cancer and large goiters. Frequently, surgeons are overdependent on radiologist's report. In this context, we analysed the practical benefits of surgeon's independent radiological evaluation in our institutional experience. Material And Methods: This prospective study was conducted in Endocrine Surgery department of a teaching hospital in South India. Cases operated between January 2011 and June 2012 (18 months) were included. Films of cross-sectional imaging were read in detail by primary and assistant surgeons in correlation with stepwise operative planning and documented. Cases with additional radiological signs on surgeon's evaluation, which were missing in radiologist's report are discussed in detail. Results: F: M ratio is 67:24. Mean age was 45.3 ± 9.8 years (37 – 76). Forty-seven cases of thyroid cancer and 44 cases of large goiters were analysed. Surgeon read additional signs such as obliterated fat plane between goiter and subcutaneous plane; level I lymph nodes; bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy, internal jugular vein thrombus, and pharyngeal invasion helped in pre-operatively planned modification of operative steps for optimal R0 resection and total thyroidectomy. A mean of 1.42 ± 0.83 (1 – 6), additional signs were detected on surgeon's radiological evaluation compared to radiologist's report in 41.7% of cases. These findings modified the pre-operative plan, facilitating better surgical outcome in 28.6% of cases. Conclusion: In high-risk thyroid cancer and large goiters, detailed radiological evaluation by surgeon facilitates optimal surgical resection and superior outcome compared to radiologist report-guided surgery.
  - 2,147 204
Nasopharyngeal cancers: A retrospective comparative analysis of radiotherapy alone versus chemo-radiation (Benghazi experience)
A Pakkirmasthan, S Kurakula
July-September 2015, 52(3):391-395
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176718  PMID:26905148
Introduction: Cancer of Nasopharynx is an important disease in Maghreb region. 75 patients (4.3%) of cancer nasopharynx between the years 1995 to 2000 were referred to our centre in Benghazi out of total 1757 patients. This study was done to analyze the clinical presentations and to study response to the treatment practiced. Materials And Methods: 59 patients were available with full records excluding the recurrent and metastatic presentation. 37 were males with 22 females (1.7:1), (31/59) 52% patients were from 25-49 years, (17/59) 28.8% were from 50-60 years. 44/59 (74%) patients presented with Lymphadenopathy either unilateral or bilateral. 46/59 (78%) of patients were in clinical stage II or III. 44/59 (74%) of patients were of undifferentiated histology. Results: The pattern of clinical response and trend of follow up those that received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy and radiotherapy alone are discussed. Discussion : In our analysis, we also found that the patients who had received chemotherapy by and large had a less trend to towards developing metastatic disease and local recurrence and faired better. Conclusion: We are now following the protocol of Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by chemo-radiotherapy and followed by chemotherapy and results will mature in the years to come.
  - 2,141 190
Predictivity of human papillomavirus positivity in advanced oral cancer
S Kane, VM Patil, V Noronha, A Joshi, S Dhumal, A D’Cruz, A Bhattacharjee, K Prabhash
July-September 2015, 52(3):403-405
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176694  PMID:26905153
Background And Objective: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a known prognostic factor world over in patients of carcinoma oropharynx. The role of HPV in oral cancers has not been investigated adequately. We tried to identify standard clinicopathological features in oral cancer, which would predict HPV-positivity. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 124 cases of T4 oral cancer patients at our center. HPV-positive was defined in accordance with positive p16 immunohistochemistry done on pretreatment local tumor site biopsy. Age, sex, habits (smoking history and oral tobacco), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS), T stage, N stage, grade, and site were selected, for testing of prediction for HPV-positivity. The analysis was performed by R studio version 3.1.1. Two-sample test for equality of proportions with continuity correction was used to identify factors predicting for HPV-positivity. P = 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Of 124 patients, 16 patients (12.9%) were HPV-positive. The median age of the whole cohort was 43 years (interquartile range 37–52 years) with 15 females (12.1%). All had squamous cell carcinoma (100%). The grade of the tumor was well differentiated in 9 patients (7.2%), moderately differentiated in 98 patients (79.1%), and poorly differentiated in 17 patients (13.7%). The ECOG PS 0 in 19 patients (15.3%), 1 in 104 patients (83.9%), and 2 in 1 patient (0.8%). The subsite of the tumor was buccal mucosa in 74 patients (59.7%), anterior two-third of tongue in 33 patients (26.6%), and others in 17 patients (13.7%). None of the tested factors except the use of oral tobacco were statistically significantly associated with HPV-positivity. History of tobacco usage had a statistical trend toward ability to predict HPV-positivity. The proportion of patients with HPV-positive oral cancer in patients without history usage of oral tobacco was 31.3% while it was 10.2% in patients with previous history of tobacco use (P = 0.03). Conclusion: Standard clinicopathological variables could not predict for HPV-positivity. Negative history of tobacco (smokeless) usage showed statistical trends toward ability to predict HPV-positivity in oral cancer patients.
  - 2,256 356
Use of colposcopy for diagnosing oral mucosal lesions: An illusion or a realistic possibility?
R Issrani, R Ammanagi, V Keluskar
July-September 2015, 52(3):370-374
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176724  PMID:26905142
As oral physicians, we come across many oral mucosal lesions that usually require a supplementary biopsy with histopathologic examination to establish a definite diagnosis. The selection of the site for biopsy is the most important criteria to arrive at a correct diagnosis. As biopsy site is a subjective choice, it is possible that the biopsy specimens are taken from unrepresentative areas of the lesion. At present, though there are simple chair side methods to aid the diagnosis of such changes, there is a high risk of false positives. Hence, there is a need of a simple and reliable method for selecting the most appropriate area for biopsy. One such method is colposcopy that may be beneficial as compared to routine clinical examination. Hence, this article stresses on the colposcopic method that can be used to select biopsy sites which should be evaluated in further clinical studies.
  - 2,658 233
Do traumatic lumbar punctures lead to greater relapses in acute lymphoblastic leukemia? Experience at a university hospital in India
S Totadri, A Trehan, R Srinivasan, D Bansal, P Bhatia
July-September 2015, 52(3):300-303
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176722  PMID:26905118
Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of traumatic lumbar puncture (TLP) at diagnosis of relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Risk factors associated with TLP were assessed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed from the records of children with ALL who were treated from January 2010 to December 2012. Results: A total of 311 patients with median age of 5 years (range: 1–13) were treated for ALL. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis obtained from first LP revealed 275: Central nervous system 1 (CNS 1) (no blasts); 8: CNS 3 (blasts positive); and 28: TLP. Twenty-eight (9%) patients relapsed. Twelve (3.9%) had a CNS relapse. A TLP at diagnosis was not associated with an increased risk of systemic or CNS relapse (P = 0.298, 0.295). Three years event-free survival of patients with TLP and without atraumatic LP (ATLP) at diagnosis was 56 ± 5.2% and 51.8 ± 12.4%, (P = 0.520). Three years overall survival with TLP and ATLP was 73.3 ± 3.5% and 70.4 ± 12.5%, respectively, (P = 0.963). Median platelet count in patients with TLP was significantly lower than those without TLP (10,000/μL and 28,000/μL, P < 0.001). A receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed for predicting the risk of TLP based on platelet count. Area under the curve was 0.74 ± 0.05 (95% confidence interval 0.64–0.84). Platelet count < 23.5 × 109/L at the time of LP had 75% sensitivity and 64.4% specificity in predicting a TLP. Conclusions: Low platelet counts are significantly associated with risk of TLP. Traumatic LP at diagnosis was not associated with an increased risk of relapse.
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Hematologic, liver enzymes and electrolytes changes in chronic myeloid leukemia after Imatinib medication
K Moshfeghi, N Nazemizadeh, V Mehrzad, A Hajiannejad, F Esmaeili, A Mohammadbeigi
July-September 2015, 52(3):305-307
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176715  PMID:26905120
Background: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), is the first malignancy that related to the chromosomal abnormality and include 15-20% of all adulthood leukemia. AIMS: This study aimed to compare the hematologic, breakpoint cluster region-abelson (BCR-ABL) and liver function enzymes changes during treatment period of Imatinib. Settings And Design: A noncurrent clinical trial study. Materials And Methods: New incident CML patients received Iranian made or Indian-made Imatinib after baseline measurement. Hematologic, BCR-ABL, electrolytes and liver function enzymes measured again after 24 weeks. Statistical Analysis Used: Paired t-test and independent t-test was used to assess the effect of treatment in within and between groups, respectively. Results: Imatinib has a decreasing impact on white blood cells and placates. While an increasing effect on hemoglobin concentration. Iranian made and Indian-made Imatinib has a same effect on improvement of hematologic, BCR-ABL, electrolytes in CML patients. However, the liver changes of Imatinib were not clinically significant. Conclusion: The Iranian-made Imatinib can be used as a replacement for Indian made ones without any statistical and clinical significant difference on Improvement of CML patients.
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Is there relationship between excision repair cross-complementation 1 expression level and response to treatment and prognosis in an advanced stage lung cancer treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy?
G Polat, U Yilmaz, C Anar, B Kömürcüoglu, Z Aydogdu
July-September 2015, 52(3):277-280
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176760  PMID:26905109
Aim: It is important to know the tumor resistance against cisplatin before the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response to treatment and survival in patients with NSCLC treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy according to excision repair cross-complementation 1 (ERCC1) expression. Materials and Methods: Among 119 patients treated with cisplatin and vinorelbine or docetaxel, 39 (32%) patients enrolled who have enough tumor tissue to analyze ERCC1 expression. ERCC1 expression defined as negative in score 0-1, positive in score 2-3. Results: There was no difference between ERCC1 positive and negative groups (P = 0.63). Mean survival was 14.7 months (95% confidence interval [CI]; 10.0-19.3 month) in ERCC1 negative group, 10.9 months (95% CI; 7.4-14.3 month) in ERCC1 positive group (P = 0.23). Progression free survival was 7.9 months in ERCC1 negative group (95% CI; 5.8-9.9 months), 6.2 months in ERCC1 positive group (95% CI; 4.0-8.5 months) (P = 0.27). Conclusion: Identification of ERCC1expression level of tumor tissues in NSCLC patients before treatment was not useful in prediction of treatment response and prognosis.
  - 1,636 240
Neglected orthopedic oncology - Causes, epidemiology and challenges for management in developing countries
YS Siddiqui, MKA Sherwani, AQ Khan, M Zahid, M Abbas, N Asif
July-September 2015, 52(3):325-329
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176737  PMID:26905128
Background: Management of malignant bone and soft tissue tumors remains an overwhelming confront to orthopedic surgeons. The challenge is discriminating in developing countries due to inadequate diagnostic and therapeutic amenities and unawareness. A lot has been discussed about the neglected orthopedic trauma, but the published literature on the causes and management of neglected bone and soft tissue tumors is sparse. Hence, current study was undertaken to highlight the causes of neglect and therapeutic challenges for managing these neglected tumors in developing countries. Aims And Objectives: To determine the causes of neglect of malignant bone and soft tissue tumors, their epidemiology (including their relative frequencies, age, gender discrimination, anatomical sites of occurrence and histological characteristics) and difficult aspect of management due to neglect or delayed presentation. Materials And Methods: This was an appraisal of the neglected malignant bone and soft tissue tumors presented to J. N. Medical College and Hospital from June 2008 to May 2013. Criteria for labeling the tumor as neglected malignant bone and soft tissue tumor was delayed presentation (>3 months), locally advanced disease, ulceration, sepsis, fungating mass or metastasis at the time of presentation. All the cases were reviewed and analyzed for age, gender, histological types, educational status and socioeconomic status of the family, any prior treatment by traditional bone setters or registered medical practitioner, cause of delay for seeking medical advice. We have also analyzed the treatment given at our institute and the outcome of the tumor. Observations And Results: Eighteen patients fulfilled the criteria for neglected malignant bone and soft tissue tumors, hence were included in study. Eight cases were of osteosarcoma, five cases were of Ewing's sarcoma, three cases were of chondrosarcoma and 1 case each was of pleomorphic liposarcoma and primary lymphoma of bone. According to Enneking staging system 11 cases were of stage III (distant metastasis) and 7 were stage II-B. Seven were females, and 11 were males. Age range was 5–68 years. 15 patients (83.3%) belonged to low socioeconomic status with 17 patients (94.4%) belonged to uneducated background. Cause of delay in seeking medical advice was neglect by the patient and family due to financial constraints, cultural and religious believes, lack of access to health care facilities, consultation with traditional bone setters and even misdiagnosis by qualified orthopedic surgeons. The tumors included were all unresectable and of huge sizes, hence were managed with amputation/dis-articulation, chemotherapy or radiation. Conclusion: The current study tries to highlight the causes and quantity of neglect of malignant bone and soft tissue tumors prevalent in our country, which poses a therapeutic challenge for management and consequent mutilating surgeries with poor outcome resulting in loss of extremity and existence.
  - 2,846 278
Histological diversity and clinical characteristics of Ewing sarcoma family of tumors in children: A series from a tertiary care center in South India
D Priya, Rekha V Kumar, L Appaji, BS Aruna Kumari, M Padma, Prasanna Kumari
July-September 2015, 52(3):331-335
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176700  PMID:26905130
Background: The Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) are aggressive malignant tumors with small round cell morphology affecting mainly children and adolescents. The aim of this study is to classify the histological diversity and clinical characteristics of ESFT in children from a Tertiary Care Center in South India. Materials And Methods: This retrospective descriptive study includes 51 cases of ES in children aged below 15 years. Clinical details were collected from case files. Histomorphological features were reviewed and tumors were subtyped into classic, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) and atypical variants along with immunohistochemical markers, cytogenetics, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Results: Fifty-three percent were female and 47% were male with mean age of 10 years. The most common site of involvement was skeletal involvement in 71%, followed by soft tissue involvement in 23%, and visceral involvement in 6%. Localized disease at presentation was seen in 44%, locally advanced disease in 28%, and metastatic disease in 28%. Recurrence was documented during follow-up in 18% of the cases. Histomorphologically, classic type was the most common (72%) followed by PNET (20%) category and atypical variant (8%). All cases were immunoreactive for CD99. Cytogenetic study in 12 cases showed translocation t(11;22) (q24;12) in 80% and variant translocations such as t(3;16), t(3;11) with nonspecific numerical abnormalities in 20%. FISH was carried out for documentation of four cases with atypical histomorphology. Conclusion: ESFT had wide histological variation which required confirmation by ancillary studies.
  - 3,407 286
Analyzing multiple risk factors in patients with sarcomas. A case-control study
S Nabi, P Kahlon, P Kuriakose
July-September 2015, 52(3):337-342
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.176752  PMID:26905132
Context: Sarcomas are a rare group of malignancies. Very little is known about their risk factors. Aims: The aim was to evaluate different risk factors in patients with sarcomas and to determine the median age at diagnosis, differences in race, gender, histological grades and staging in sarcoma patients. Settings And Design: A retrospective case-control study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in the USA. This included patients diagnosed with sarcomas from year 2000 to 2010. Materials And Methods: Data were extracted with the help of electronic medical records using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth revision codes. Healthy, matched controls were randomly selected from the same tertiary care hospital database. Statistical Analysis: Univariate comparisons between cases and controls were done using a two-group independent t-test for age and using Chi-square tests for the categorical variables. In order to identify possible independent predictors of sarcomas, a multiple logistic regression model was constructed using sarcoma status as the dependent variable and using, initially, all variables with a univariate P < 0.2 as independent variables. Variables were reduced in a manual stepwise manner to arrive at a final model. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. All analyses were performed using SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Results: A total of 425 sarcoma patients and 429 age, sex and race matched healthy controls were analyzed in this study. We found that a history of smoking and alcoholism was significantly associated with sarcomas. We also found that the history of cancer in first-degree relatives had a significant relationship. In addition, patients with sarcomas are more likely to have a history of another malignancy when compared with controls. Conclusions: Smoking and alcohol are potential risk factors for sarcomas. In addition, a history of cancer in the first-degree relative is also a potential risk factor. Patients with sarcomas are likely to have a history of another malignancy when compared with controls.
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