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Figure 5: Flowchart showing the fundamental steps of hand-crafted radiomics (HCR) pipeline. In contrast, deep-learning radiomics (DLR) is an end-to-end method without separate steps of feature extraction and selection and modeling. Both models however require validation with new datasets before clinical application

Figure 5: Flowchart showing the fundamental steps of hand-crafted radiomics (HCR) pipeline. In contrast, deep-learning radiomics (DLR) is an end-to-end method without separate steps of feature extraction and selection and modeling. Both models however require validation with new datasets before clinical application